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PlagTracker.com - A Free Online Plagiarism Detector

For a free online plagiarism detector, check out PlagChecker.com. Simply upload a paper, let PlagTracker scan it for plagiarism and review the plagiarism report. The checker compares the content of the paper to the content of over 14 billion webpages and 5 million academic papers to see if any content has been plagiarized.


Who Needs PlagTracker?

PlagTracker is not just a resource for teachers and professors. While it does a good job of helping instructors check papers when they suspect plagiarism, it is designed to help prevent plagiarism in the first place. Students can use PlagTracker to check their papers for plagiarism before they turn them in and receive suggestions on information to change or advice on what needs to be cited. Website creators can also check the content of their websites to make sure they are not copying the content of another website or author. Using PlagTracker can help users avoid failing grades, lawsuits and tarnished reputations, all within a few minutes.

Using PlagTracket

The plagiarism checker at PlagChecker is absolutely free, which means you have the ability to check as many papers as you want, as often as you want. It only takes a couple of minutes to check a paper, but the program may take more time to develop a report based on the length of the paper and the amount of plagiarized content. Once the report appears, any potentially plagiarized portions of your paper are highlighted in red to make them easy to see. Clicking on the highlighted portions of the paper will reveal a list of the site or sites your content may have come from. You can click on the links for the sites on the right-hand page and automatically access the content that is similar to your own.

plagiarismreport
A Sample Plagiarism Report


Your paper is also given a plagiarism rate to show how much of your paper may be plagiarized. Most papers, especially biographies and basic research papers, may have a small percentage of plagiarized content because there are only so many ways to present information. This is okay if the small amount of plagiarized content consists of general facts, but not okay if the small amount of plagiarized content cites another author’s opinion as your own.

lowplagrate
Low Plag Rate


PlagTracker offers something different from a lot of plagiarism checkers out there because of the unique algorithm the site uses to detect plagiarism and the large number of websites and papers it checks. Users do not have to download anything in order to use the plagiarism checker and are not required to pay a fee to use the checker or view the plagiarism report, nor are they overwhelmed with requests to purchase other products after using the checker. The goal of PlagTracker is simple: help students and other writers avoid plagiarizing the works of others in their papers.


Written June 15, 2012 by Stacy Zeiger


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User Reviews & Comments

07/07/2017 Tania Campoverde
El género de Salmonella se ubica dentro del orden de la Enterobacterias y de la familia enterobacteriacea. Son bacilos Gram negativos generalmente móviles en forma de vara. Algunas de estas bacterias son responsables de muchas enfermedades en los seres humanos y otros animales, más comúnmente intoxicación por alimentos y la fiebre tifoidea. La salmonella vive en los intestinos de los mamíferos, aves y reptiles, y es generalmente inofensiva. (1) (2) La salmonelosis es una de las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria más común y ampliamente extendida, y cada año provoca decenas de millones de casos en todo el mundo. La mayoría de los casos de salmonelosis son leves, aunque, en ocasiones, la enfermedad puede causar defunción. La gravedad de la enfermedad depende de factores propios del huésped y de la cepa de Salmonella en cuestión. (3) En el continente Americano, cada año, se reportan aproximadamente 150.000 casos de salmonelosis en América y de estos, alrededor de 1.000 personas mueren cada año por causa de la salmonelosis aguda. (1) En Ecuador según el Ministerio de Salud Pública en el presente año se ha notificado 20 casos de Salmonelosis, los mismos que en su mayoría fueron reportados en la provincia de Manabí. El grupo de edad más afectado es de 20 a 49 años, mayoritariamente el sexo femenino la relación mujer-hombres de 2:1.La provincia de Manabí acumula l23, 1% (115casos) del total de casos notificados a nivel nacional hasta la fecha. En la provincia del Azuay y del Cañar se notifica 24 casos de salmonelosis. (3) La manifestación clínica más común de una enfermedad transmitida por los alimentos consiste en la aparición de síntomas gastrointestinales, pero estas enfermedades también pueden dar lugar a síntomas neurológicos, ginecológicos, inmunológicos y de otro tipo. La ingestión de alimentos contaminados puede provocar una insuficiencia multiorgánica, incluso cáncer, por lo que representa una carga considerable de discapacidad, así como de mortalidad. (4) La OMS promueve el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de inocuidad de los alimentos, las buenas prácticas de elaboración y la información de los vendedores y consumidores acerca de la adecuada manipulación de los alimentos, y la prevención de la contaminación. La información de los consumidores y la capacitación de los manipuladores de alimentos para la manipulación segura de los productos son algunos de los medios más eficaces para prevenir enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, entre ellas la salmonelosis. (3) Salmonelosis está asociada frecuentemente con enfermedades gastrointestinales, difundidas directamente por carne contaminada o que la misma se encuentre mal cocida; por ello se expone el objetivo del presente trabajo. Como es de conocimiento de muchos pobladores se expende carne cocida de cerdo en varios restaurantes al aire libre en el sector de San Camilo, siendo de gran afluencia los fines de semana promoviendo un mayor consumo. Siendo así como parte de un problema, ya que se observa malas prácticas de manufactura para el procesamiento y el expendio de dicho alimentos, y así con el estudio se podrá identificar los puntos de venta con mayor incidencia con la bacteria (Salmonella), que resulta un peligro para la ciudadanía.

10/12/2016 wellinton
A indicação de espécies de plantas de cobertura do solo, especialmente leguminosas e gramíneas, depende da resistência de seus resíduos, após o manejo, o que influencia a manutenção da cobertura. As leguminosas constituem uma das espécies mais usadas como plantas de cobertura. Essas variedades têm como garantia contribuições consideráveis na viabilidade econômica e sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção, pois tem capacidades de realizar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio eficientemente. Esses tipos de plantas tem potencial de adição de N, sendo, também, importantes para o sequestro de carbono (C) no solo. Neste caso, ocorreria redução da necessidade da aplicação de nitrogênio sintético (SISTI et al., 2004).

08/02/2016 Dr Abdullahi Audu Malgwi
I am the current Head of Department of Accounting , University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. I would like you to assist me with your free flags arise checker to assess the level of students flags arise of their projects. Thanks alot

05/16/2016 tlaleng
Communication is a two process that involves interaction between a receiver and a sender. It is use to deliver a message for us to convey or convince another individual for better understanding. At work, an effective communication builds a strong relationship among co-workers and reduces patient’s anxiety. Communication serves as important tool in displaying our own emotions, thoughts and ideas which can be observe through verbal and non-verbal cues. Different techniques can be practice when communicating. It this reflection “My Professional Communication Practices” I recognized nurse-patient interaction process and it covers different communication tools that is usually practice here in King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital. Including the AIDET (Acknowledge, Introduce, Duration, Explanation, and Thank You) which is a simple but powerful communication tool. Also, ISBAR (Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation) is a common instrument that is usually use among healthcare professionals for collaborative management especially during endorsement. And Nursing Huddle is briefly discuss in this chapter. Nevertheless, it provides also importance of effective communication by using communication etiquette. I. USING THE NURSE-PATIENT INTERACTION PROCESS Building and establishing a nurse-patient relationship is very crucial part for us nurses. We need to find ways on how to initiate an interaction and use effective technique during conversation. A nurse-patient interaction consists verbal and non-verbal cues which are important to an effective communication. We must to be constantly determine and observe this cues during the discussion or interaction. The chance of increasing the effectivity of services delivered is base also from the Nurse-patient interaction. It is a front liner in developing conversation and build rapport to our patient. It will take confidence and initiative to deal with different kind of clients. Being a person who’s dealing with life of other individual it is necessary for us to have a good background in communicating and know different effective techniques to build a good interpersonal relationship. Peplau believed that the relationship depended on the interaction of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of each person and that the patient will experience better health when all their specific needs are fully considered in the relationship. And this thoughts, feelings and actions provided by our patient can be easily observe through effective nurse-patient interaction. In order for us to become effective we must need to go on the phases of nurse-patient interaction which includes the following: Orientation phase wherein the individual has a felt need and seeks professional assistance. The nurse helps to recognize and understand his/her problem and determine the need for help, Identification phase- the patient identifies who can help him/her. The nurse permits exploration of feelings to aid the patient in undergoing illness as an experience that reorients feelings and strengthens positive forces in the personality and provides need satisfaction, Exploitation phase- during this phase, the patient attempts to derive full value from what he/she are offered through the relationship. The nurse can project new goals to be achieved through personal effort and power shifts from the nurse to the patient as the patient delays gratification to achieve the newly formed goals, and lastly, the resolution phasethe patient gradually puts aside old goals and adopt new goals. This is a process in which the patient frees himself from identification with the nurse. Through nurse-patient interaction we can build a strong relationship with the use of different communication tools. A. An Excellent Nurse-Patient Interaction To build and achieve effective communication we must give importance on both verbal and non-verbal cues provided during nurse-patient interaction. It is required for us to assess both subjective and objective data. It is an operative way in assessing and evaluating what does our patient really manifest or feels about her condition, and for us to provide the best care to our patients, reducing their anxieties and building a trustful and respectful environment. If we are effective in communicating with our patient, they may feel relax, comfortable and at ease to tell their own problems or concerns. I experienced an excellent Nurse-patient interaction often, it’s been my practice to build rapport and to create a good-working relationship with my patients, family and relatives. Upon entering the room I smiled to them and provided an eye contact and I acknowledged the presence of the family. I continued having conversation with my patient by introducing myself first with the patient and family and asked my patient how is he today and how does he feel. In this way I can secure the subjective data provided by my patient. I involved also the family in the interaction and ask if there any concerns or help they needed. Empathy and kindness was displayed during the interaction and I showed gestures that convey my patient that he can trust me. The family answered me that they don’t have anything concerns about and their patient is alright but I observe that my patient who’s postoperatively is uncomfortable and he’s in pain. At this time, I continually assessed my patient and get his vital signs. I refer to his attending physician and check his medication prescribed for pain. Being a keen observant and the use proper techniques of communication I was able to introduce an excellent nursepatient interaction. In this way, I possibly intervene ahead of time regarding the pain that my patient feels. Effective communication helps me to provide a good quality of care to my 2 patient particularly in giving therapeutic care and alleviating patient’s suffering. B. A Negative Experience on Nurse-Patient Interaction Sometimes we omit to do what is right and forget to prioritize our patient or to involve the family in the plan of care. It is common to all of us to have personal problems, and this problems is accompanied during working hours. Not only for that, emergency situations are hard to handle and we cannot think clearly and effectively. This are the factors that we can feel anxious, angry and can change our mood. Yet, we always says that we must not include personal issues in working area but we cannot help it because it is our own weakness to become emotional when it comes to our live ones. Our problems in life is an example of barrier to an effective communication and building excellent nurse-patient interaction. This is what I have experienced during the death of my father. It was happened during my first year of experience here in Saudi. While I’m on my duty I received a message from my mother saying that my father is already in God’s hands. It was a shocking revelation, I got sad, cried and I don’t know what to do. I want to go home in the Philippines immediately to a fastest way I can without thinking that I have a patient also waiting and depending on me. My colleagues comforted me and provided a support system that they are really there to support me to go along with the grieving process. I’m really afraid of losing someone and being away with family made the scenario more difficult for me. My colleagues already provided the routine task with my four patients including tube feedings, suctioning, and repositioning every two hours. I am blessed and very thankful having them and their presence during the time that I received the message about the death of my father. I realized that I have the obligation to finish my work and I’m still accountable with the life of my patients. So, I visited them before my shift ends, my patient was asking me where did I go. Why I didn’t attend to his calls? At this moment I portrait a negative nurse-patient interaction by providing him a sharp-look and never answered his questions. I feel bad about what happened and I don’t know on how to interact with other people properly because I’m about to cry. What inside my mind is to go home and I need to call my family. I know that this situation of worst scenario of providing negative patient interaction because of the situation I’m handling. I didn’t able to meet the expectations form my patients. I didn’t provide the quality of care they needed. I ’m being self-centered and my mind is being focused on what had happened. I admit my fault of being irresponsible that time and being thankful that my patients and colleagues provides me understanding as I go along with the grievance and healing process. C. Use of Therpaeutic Relationship Building relationship is considered as a framework in our working area. It involve proper communication which serves as a pre-requisite in establishing therapeutic relationship. We should know ways on how to develop an interpersonal skills to build a strong and therapeutic relationship because poor interpersonal relationship can harm the quality of care and prevent the health team in achieving the goals. For us to develop a therapeutic relationship we must be skillful and know several techniques. Which includes the following: 1. BUILDING TRUST- Trust is considered as a key important in building a therapeutic relationship. It is the most needed tool for us to build teamwork in the area and the patient will be able to provide information regarding his situation, pain or any related issues. It is a vague feeling to have poor interaction between a nurse and patient because of lacking of trust. We will not be able to truly understand the patient if he will not be able to declare his feelings or emotions because of the hesitation to provide the legal information. For me as a nurse, in order to build trust not only to my colleagues but also with my patient I must be able to maintain confidentiality and never divulge personal information to others without any permission or if it is against the law/policy. Sometimes first impression lasts to other person, so, during the first nurse-patient interaction I should be providing adequate and accurate information and never give false assurances. I must be honest to what I am saying and what I am doing. I will not say any information if I am in doubt, it is better to become honest rather than pretending that I know the procedure even if it is not. Telling the truth is more important than giving promises, because this promises sometimes forget and failed to do. As a primary care giver I should be knowledgeable and skillful because most of the patient is giving trust to this kind of nurse, an effective and efficient nurse. I will always provide quality health care services for them to build trustworthy relationship. Whenever I’m performing procedure I should permission first and be able to explain the procedure before proceeding to touch the patient’s body. No one could entrust his health condition to any person who’s harsh and shows disrespect. 2. SHOWING GENUINE INTEREST- We nurses are the primary caregiver and always has a contact with our patients. So, nurses are expected to act in the best interests by providing their needs and health quality assurance. In showing genuine interests, I must know on how to listen with their problems, concerns and the true complaint of my patient. I must ensure that my client’s needs are met, be able to maintain boundaries, and to act professionally. I must observe the value of being patient advocate and being accountable. I will continually show respect with their own decisions. Whatever services I give it must come from my heart and not for any other intention like financial gain or recognition. It involves also on how I treated my patient, my behavior while taking care of them, and my attitude towards them. I need to be an open-minded person and engage myself to a nurse-patient relationship by active listening, patientoriented, being polite and displays punctuality to achieve highest patient’ satisfaction. 3. SHOWING EMPATHY- One way of understanding our patient’s feelings, needs, and concerns is to show empathy. It helps us to learn more about the situation of our patient and increase a therapeutic relationship between a nurse and a client. I must understand clearly the needs of my patient by using effective 3 communication techniques and imagining myself in their own situation. Whenever my patient is in my pain, I must see it as real and will never think it as a joke or being too emotional, I should be able to see myself in her situation having a disease who experiencing pain or suffering. I’m going to respond to their complaint and will never ignore it. As a healthcare provider I can show empathy by showing greatness and being compassionate in delivering health care services with my patient. Also, when patient is in trouble to stand because of his disability I should be considerate in helping him no matter how busy I am because I must understand his difficulties he’s experiencing. I do not judge him personally no matter his past history why he gets the injury. It is becoming on how I become responsible in the taking the health of other individual especially my patient. 4. CONVEYING ACCEPTANCE- Our communication skills is very important in building a positive nursepatient interaction. It is how we show our interest with the condition of the patient like being attentive and to convey acceptance. Most importantly, during communication non-verbal form like gestures when approaching the patient has a great impact during interaction. Our own actions and behavior are ways on how to convey acceptance by my patient. I cannot say even any health teachings to my patient if I myself was not be able to accomplish the task like saying them to stop cigarette smoking because it’s dangerous to their health and they can acquire different diseases if the patient sees you smoking at public places during break time. My action is very important in conveying acceptance, I need to become attentive with their needs. Never get rid with promises and false assurances, if I’m going to say I will come back after 30 minutes then I need to go back before or at exact time. I should never lie them even once. 5. GIVING POSITIVE REGARD- Patients connotes that when entering the hospital they are having dilemma regarding their health and experiencing depression or vague emotional state. They are seeking attention for them to become better. They are expressing their utmost bad experience of having trouble and difficulties about their on-going condition. And we nurses, has a great challenge and job to work to help them during the hospitalization and be able to give positive regard. I need to become attentive to the feelings of my patient, once again I will never give assurances that they will gain their health exactly the same before. I need to know on how to managing up my colleagues and we are there to guide and support her and her family. I should understand the stress provided to them by having the disease, a patient might relieve if she knows our utmost intention and willingness to help them during the disease process. Any procedure that I’m going to perform I should ask permission first and inform them what I’m going to do, why it is necessary and/or possible giving the disadvantages and advantages of the treatment. My patient stays as my center of giving service but I need to involve also the family in making decision and to become part of taking care the patient and should never let them to feel down and they should remain strong for the sake of the patient. 6. MY SELF-AWARENESS- One way on how to deliver a healthcare services is knowing our own behavior, traits, personality and have a better understanding with our characteristics and values in life. No matter who we are, even nurses need to evaluate ourselves and how far we can go beyond our capabilities. Self-awareness is knowing ourselves better. During the care of our patient we can never determine the main problem if we ourselves don’t know on how to focus. Sometimes transference happened, in which the nurse is adapting the behavior of his patient. She can never determine his own and neglect to evaluate his own capacity. For me, I need to know my weaknesses and my strengths while taking care of my patient. I should know my limitations between my relationships with my clients. Proper selfevaluation is attribute to understand more what care I can provide to my patient and how can I create a good environment for my patient. Being self-aware I know how skillful I am and my knowledge in taking care of other people. Being aware of myself has enabled me to improve my skills in communication and to become part of the collaborative team. Knowing my own capabilities, I can easily relate myself with the experience of my patient. 7. THERAPEUTIC USE OF SELF- An excellent nursepatient interaction is more effective when we know how to involve therapeutic use of self. As we know, communication practices is a two-way process that involves proper interrogation and interaction. I can say that having therapeutic use of self gives me better understanding how can I enter myself within the vicinity of taking care of my patient and never go beyond limitations. My experience encompasses in helping me to become more productive, active and alert when delivering care to my patient. I need to recognized and respect each other differences, showing humility and flexible while giving care to my patient. I can incorporate myself in giving advice basing form my own knowledge and experience in life. To be a health counselor not only with the patient but also to the family who needs my support also. Through humor, I can uplift the patient’s and family’s emotions and spirit. II. THE AIDET PROCESS In creating a positive and therapeutic relationship with our patient we should know on to deliver our message in clear and accurate. We should provide an effective communication by using tools that could serve as a framework in increasing high quality of care in healthcare delivery system such as AIDET. AIDET process is a simple yet a powerful communication tool that will help all the employees here in KAAUH to have a better understanding and will create an environment/community that is different from other institution and this will make KAAUH as unique. It is short but detailed that can build a strong relationship to another individual. AIDET stands for (Acknowledge, Introduction, Duration, Explanation, and Thank You). 4 A. Aknowledging Acknowledging makes the person feel more important. It is the phase wherein you will build rapport by smiling, eye contact and give a short “hi” or “hello” to the patient or family. Their presence must be acknowledge and they have the right to be treated well. It is proper and right to give them attention and show them the initiative or willingness to help using verbal and non-verbal form of communication. With in-patient it is necessary during this phase to identify the patient politely and acknowledge always the presence of the family. If we know already the name of the patient, he/she makes feel special if we will be going to address with his/her name. Me: While smiling or having an eye contact “Hello Sir Mohammad.. Good morning!! How are you today, how can I help you, anything that bothers you? Patient: “Goodmorning too. I am good. How about you?” Me: “Thank you for asking. I’m very fine Sir” B. Introduce The next phase is to introduce our self to the patient and to his family. We must tell our name, a brief introduction regarding your role here in KAAUH and should state our purpose why you are there. The patient may feel better and comfortable if he knows who’s he is talking too and don’t have the feeling of strange. In this part, the patient have an understanding that you can guide him and he will not hesitate or bother to ask help. It is the process of letting your patients and families know that you and healthcare team are going to take care of them. By giving your name initiates an open communication telling that you are willing to help the patient to any matters. It signifies that you’re there to guide him with the process or whatever help he needs. Also, here in KAAUH it is in our policy to wear our name badge facing forward all the time. So the patient will be able to know and recognized us. Me: “I am Mizael Shareign Q. Marcos. I am your nurse for the next 12 hours, I will be the one to take care of you. Whatever I can do to help you please don’t hesitate to ask help. You can call me by my name or you can use the call system, I’ll be here to assist you”. Patient: “Alright. I am thankful that somebody is there for us.” Me: “You’re always welcome Sir Mohammad”. Please take a rest. C. Duration Duration tells us on how long does the procedure will take or how long we’re going to assist and hours of stay to our patient. It is necessary to estimate the time we can allot to our patient and never give promises or false assurance that you there anytime even we cannot. Sometimes, nurses forget to say or never want to say that he is still busy and cannot attend to the call of our patient but on their part they are more disappointed if no one is attending with their calls. We should never forget to involve the family in this process, we can inform them on behalf of the patient example if the patient is sleeping. Let them know what time you will be available especially when you are taking another patient also. Never let the patient and the family waits for you. The availability of the patient during the procedure must also be considered because sometimes patient are having their meal and when suddenly the doctor ordered for a STAT medication. Me: “Sir Mohammad, Can I have your time? I am going to take your vital signs and it will take 5-10 minutes of your time. If it is ok with you? Patient: “Can I go to the bathroom first”? Me: Sure Sir. I’ll be waiting for you here. D. Expectation/s Our patients has the right to make decision regarding his health that’s why it is demand and obligation for us nurses that the patient will keep informed by explaining the process and the procedure. We should never neglect to inform them regarding the risk and the choices during the procedure. Our patients has the right to refuse. As necessary it is important to communicate step by step, not necessarily to finish the procedure in the fastest way we could but it should be satisfy the patient and will provide the quality of services they needed. It necessary to listen with their feelings and any concern. So try to talk, listen and learn from the patient. At the end never forget to ask again what more we can do for them. Me: “Sir I’m taking your vital signs for me to have a baseline data regarding your condition and this will be part of my assessment. I’ll be going to use this machine “telemetry” to take your vital signs. All the findings will be appear in the monitor/screen and it will documented to your files. I’ll be going to take your temperature first by putting the thermometer below your tongue. Did you take any cold or warm drinks 10 minutes ago? It will takes show many seconds until a beep sound. I will be also getting your blood pressure by putting the BP cuff in your upper arm, you can feel a squeezing while the reading is ongoing. It will take a minute for us to finish in taking the blood pressure. Sir, I’ll be holding your wrist to get your pulse rate for a minute. (No information given while taking the Respiratory rate so that the patient can’t manipulate his respiration). And lastly, this pulse oximeter is useful in taking your oxygen saturation in your body. I’ll be place the probe on your fore finger. You will not feel any pain from the minimal pinching during the procedure. If it is ok to proceed with the procedure Sir? Do you have any concern regarding the procedure? Patient: “No. It’s okay with me, no problem. And thank you for the information Mizael”. Me: You’re always welcome Sir Mohammad”. E. Thank You Telling thank you is important that displays how we appreciate their time, express our appreciation for their cooperation and communication. Here in KAAUH, we are practicing to appreciate people who chose our services. It important that we should say thank you not only to the patient but also to the family. In this phase, we should be punctual and courteous in saying thank you and not in sarcastic way. Me: “Thank you very much Sir Mohammad for sharing your time and for cooperating with me, and thank you for choosing and trusting KAAUH. Have a good day”. Patient: “Welcome.” 5 III. THE SHARED FRAMEWORK KAAUH is aiming to give the best healthcare services to his customer by having effective and competitive employees. Though we need to consider different factors and ways in delivering this services including therapeutic relationship to coworkers, acceptance of our job and roles, collaboration and effective communication using a powerful tool. Aside from AIDET we practice also here in KAAUH to use SHARED. SHARED framework is a clinical handover adapted by our institution for us to improve the process of distributing patient information to other healthcare providers. A clinical handover as defined “it is the actual transfer of professional responsibility and accountability for some or all aspects of care for a patient, or group of patients, to another person or professional group on a temporary or permanent basis”. SHARED stands for Situation, History, Assessment, Risk, Expectation, and Documentation. This is a communication tool introduced here in KAAUH to be used by health care providers during nurse to nurse during endorsement which can be usually happened during admission, transfer, break time and endorsement. It provides a safe transfer of clinical information or data regarding our patient. By following the parts our work will be synchronized by providing clear and concise information relevant and critical in the health care practice. This communication tool helps the nurses to become more effective in assessing the status of the patient and anticipate the needs of the patient through the information provided by colleagues. It is a tool that allows effective communication among health care workers that allows cooperation, collaboration, increase quality services and patient satisfaction. A. Situation The situation of the patient is very important when reporting to a doctor, admission or during transfer of a patient. It is indicative on how we commit ourselves in giving directives. It involves necessary information such as the patient’s full name, MRN, the main reason for admission or the complaint of the patient and the diagnosis specific information. The process may take advantage during referrals to a physician or consultant when the patient has sudden change in her condition or status. Proper way of communication must take place by doing or performing AIDET first. It is important for us to be specific to the person we are talking to why we are doing the handover. We can include the situation of the patient includes the name, age, gender, height and weight of the patient. You also have to include the name of the physician who looks after the patient. For in-patients, you also need to include the length of stay of the patient in the unit or in the hospital as well as the precaution. My scenario will be an endorsement of out-going primary nurse to incoming primary nurse to in-patient unit such as the medical ward. Me: “Hello Nurse Jonna” Other Health Care Professional: “Hi Nurse Mizael” Me: “Good morning” Nurse Jonna are you ready to receive my endorsement?” Other Health Care Professional: “Yes, Iam”. Me: “Ok let’s proceed. For the Situation, the patient’s name is Mr. Mohammed Muhammad with MRN of 35467, a 55 years old male, 165 cm in height, and 50 kg. This patient is under the service of Dr. Ali Anas. The patient has a chief complaint of chest pain, high fever at night, sweating and persistent coughing for the last 5 days and with a diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and placed in room 2.127 with isolation precaution. He was admitted yesterday, so this is his second day of stay in the hospital. B. History Once we have done with the situation, the next part would be H or the history the patient. It is vital to not to omit this part since it states the relevant history of the patient including his past medical history (e.g. Hypertension, pneumonia, or any lung condition), surgical history and the treatments or medications he has been taking for the past years to alleviate any symptoms/cure of disease. We can include how effective the treatments or medications the patients had taken. Important information relevant to the patient’s current condition can be provided here such as the patient’s blood group and previous laboratory, as well as the psychological status of the patient. For long-term care or critically ill patients, it is also important to specify whether the patient’s is on status of Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) or has Advance Directives and forms are properly secured. Me: “For the History, the patient diagnosed to have Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Yesterday Chest X-ray was done including skin testing and blood test. He has a history of upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) and pneumonia one year ago. The patient has no surgery or any accident. One month before his admission he actively participate with the medical mission to different community. The patient had fever of 38.7 Celsius at 0200H and received 1000 mg as per order. C. Assessment During clinical handover it is crucial for us to become participative. There’s nothing wrong when asking questions to the person endorsing to us. It is our obligation to receive the details pertaining to the current situation of the patient. We should act as a facilitator of learning during the process especially during the assessment process. The assessment consist the following information a.) Current observations b.) Results of any procedures such as x-ray, blood tests or diagnostic imaging, urine test, etc. c.) The severity of the condition or the occurrence d.) Medications. When endorsing the patient to your colleagues or to other members of the health care team, it is important to relay the recent assessment or observation. The assessment part includes the latest vital signs, oxygen saturation level and the pain scale of the patient. The intake, output, fluid balance and the last bowel movement of the patient is also included. You also need to endorse the diet and medication of the patient. The procedures done like MRI or CT SCAN and the pending blood tests should also be mentioned so as to avoid repetition. And of course, the contraptions like invasive lines, drains and tubes must also be mentioned. Me: “For the Assessment, the patient’s vital signs are as follows, Temperature is 38.0 0 C, Pulse Rate is 98 beats per minute, Respiratory Rate is 22 cycles per minute, Oxygen saturation is 96%. The patient also complains of chest pain and difficulty of breathing with a pain scale of 6 out of 10. Oxygen delivery via nasal cannula at 3 Lpm and positioned at high 6 fowler’s. He has an IV access at Left Metacarpal vein and ongoing IVF of PNSS 500ml at 80ml/hr hooked at 1800H. The physician ordered to administer the following medications: Isoniazid 300 mg per orem daily, ethambutol 800 mg per orem daily, and Panadol 1 gram per orem PRN. The patient has weakness on upper part of the body and placed in complete bed rest. Indwelling Foley catheter was inserted at 1400H yesterday for intake and output monitoring with urine output of 750 ml for the 24 hours his total fluid balance is 600mL. The patient has no bowel movement during my shift. Other Health Care Professional: “May I ask if there is any special procedures to be done today? Me: “None. Kindly observe the patient for the occurrence of chest pain and report immediately to the doctor”. D. Risk Patient safety has been impart to us heath care providers, everyone who is handling and taking care the patient has the obligation of doing “no harm” or the possibility of acquiring injuries due to unsafe procedures or malpractice. We, should not limit ourselves to become and empower our colleagues in making decisions regarding safety practice. It involves our ability in observing what is right and proper. Hazards must be remove away from the patient. Though the potentials hazards such as the patient status or condition cannot be immediately eliminated so keen and thorough assessment should be practice. During handover, it is also important to state the relevant and important information to keep the patient safe. We have to state the allergies of the patient using color coded bands approved by KAAUH, the risk for fall using Morse fall assessment, for infection control and standard precaution, deep vein thrombosis and pressure sores using Braden Scale assessment. We also need to mention if the patient has taken any sedatives that may cause him to be at risk for fall or any accidents. Me: “For the Risk, the patient is allergic to gentamycin but no known allergies to food. He has a weakness upper body and needs assistance all the time. Safety precautions should be initiated all the time as the patient is risk for falls. The patient has a braden scale score of 13 and in at risk of developing pressure ulcers. The patient position is on high fowlers and turning should be done every 2 hours. I would like to emphasize that the patient is on isolation precaution. Other health care provider: “Ok, I will notify all healthcare providers regarding the isolation precaution. And I will also ensure that the patient’s side rails will always be up and that his linens or bed sheet is dry and turning will be done every 2 hours. E. Expectation It is fulfilling for us healthcare provider if were able to meet our goal for the day, the expectations of others and to provide satisfaction to patient and family. It is important for us to develop humor of developing plan care for the day. If problems are developed or arise we need to create solutions. We need to anticipate responses and outcomes of all the interventions provided and further improve the health of the patient. We should not take the risk of putting the life of our patient by just doing experimental measures. For the continuity of patient care, it is vital to state the timeframe of our goal and who the people involved in the plan of care. Me: “For the Expectation, we need to provide special precaution regarding the condition of the patient. Maintain patent airway and promote lung expansion by positioning the patient to high fowler’s, also, assess the patient of developing chest pain. So, within the shift the patient will not be able to complaint any discomfort. Other health care provider: “I will conduct closely monitoring of vital signs and airway assessment regularly”. F. Documentation Like we always says “anything that has been done to the patient but it wasn’t recorded is considered not really done”. So, it is necessary to be vigilant and meticulous in doing documentation. This is the best proof for us working in health care institution in justifying our self. Documentation of every intervention done by the physician or the nurse or by any other health care provider is essential and is considered as a legal document. Documentation is the last part of SHARED. It consists relevant information written in the appropriate clinical record “trakCare or Downtime forms” and shares within the healthcare team during the process of transfer or endorsement. Me: “Nurse Jonna all the procedures done and interventions provided to the patient was already documented in the trakCare, medications given on time. Also, I already updated the patient board. Other Health Care Professional: “Ok Nurse Mizael, thank you for all the information provided”. IV. THE NURSING HUDDLE King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital is an institution that provides quality of health care services by having patient driven culture and excellence in care. The goals of our institution is important for us to commit our self to find ways in improving our services. Cooperation, teamwork and collaboration provides us the fastest way in achieving this goal. Proper use of skills and techniques is a key important to enhance in developing and boost communication. Communication plays an important role especially to an institution that was developed in order to provide care to the patient, family and to the community. We nurses, are the frontlines in delivering healthcare. We need to work hand in hand to achieve the best for our patient a reason why nursing huddle is developed. Nursing huddle is form of communication that increases patient’s safety, nurse and patient satisfaction and it builds a culture of trust among nurses. A nursing huddle is a quick discussion or meeting that is usually happened any time of the day. This process will take to a maximum time of 15 minutes to engage their self for any announcement or changes. It is important to improve our services. Everyone is encourage to talk or discuss their concerns or relevant issues regarding the work or unit. A huddle could be safety, emergent/immediate, or staff huddles. 7 We are usually doing nursing huddles in our unit lead by our Nurse Manager. It helps as to boost communication and teamwork. Our leaders provided relevant information regarding updates, plans, more information and involvement of task. They are encouraging all staff to follow the rules and regulations provided by the hospital and to abide the policies which can help us to become better employees of KAAUH. While doing nursing huddles we get to know each other’s attitude and personality which helps us to improve relationships among us. With ideas and plans develop by other members we achieving our goals in a safe, faster, and with high quality. V. THE COMMUNICATION ETIQUETTE Effective communication plays an important in our world. It involves the exchange of ideas or relaying of messages from a receiver and a sender which can be delivered through speaking, writing, gestures, and telephones/text or thru other means such us media or television. The message could be formal or informal is such way the receiver clearly understand the message provided by the sender. Communication serves as a link to understand each other and to involve ourselves in creating new ideas and trying to convince another person. It is a powerful tool in obtaining and exchanging of information using proper ways called such communication etiquette. Communication Etiquette is a set or preference when sending or receiving information from other person. The behavior or conduct displayed must be acceptable and shows respect to others. We must be genuine in conveying and convincing the receiver through politeness and proper manner. It is never been a choice for us professionals to behave on what we want but we must act accordingly and professionally. 1. E-Mail – Use of high technologies is growing up so fast. They are developed to help humans in making the work faster, to lessen effort and improves way of communicating such as sending e-mail. E-mail is a faster way of communicating to somebody and helps us to deliver the message immediately in any part of the world. It provides convenience to the sender because of the accessibility and the use of technologies. The receiver can provide reply immediately upon receiving and never get waste money and provide effort to reply. E-mail is used also to send message/s to multiple personalities. We can approach any kind of person using e-mail. For me, using e-mail is a great advantage. I feel more convenient and relaxed because I can review my previous message and change immediately without changing the whole letter. It allows me to provide information and to attach documents, pictures or presentations. Here in KAAUH, we are provided our own PNU account. This serves our personal account that can be access anytime. I see to it that using my email account I becoming responsible in reading my emails and to respond immediately with the messages I receive. When making or forwarding any message I make sure that the information is complete addressing to the right person. I’m using only my account in delivering messages regarding my work and should never have the intent to use for personal matters. Before sending any messages I’ll make sure that I will addressed it with the correct person, messages must be reviewed and make sure the grammar and spelling are correct. To make the message more formal I usually put subject to my messages. 2. Telephone Communication - Telephone is commonly used today as a form of communication. It is useful when are delivering our message that needs more explanation and convincing the other person. It is also effective and safe form of communication which provides more interactive way compared to sending emails. Telephone Communication is commonly used to healthcare institution that needs to provide an immediate and prompt attention. Most probably, it gives importance of having collaboration. Healthcare personnel could easily access other department or personnel easily in the hospital using telephone. When answering telephone we should be attentive to what the other person need to deliver or imply during the conversation. I must greet him and know who the person I’m talking too. I need to provide simple greetings showing genuineness and politeness to accept his message. During conversation, I need to utter simple words such as “yes or uhuhh” for him to know that I’m listening. I must be open to any suggestions, concerns and never argue. When he’s asking with something I need to answer him in a concise and clear way. To become more sensitive never let the person waits for you, if you’re busy you can tell to call after 5 minutes. If it is emergent, play a part of becoming responsible by giving your time. I should never distract myself to any interruptions or doing other task. During emergency calls or telephone orders, it is important to repeat back the order. And lastly, I need to hang up the phone carefully without banging and possibly to secure in closing the receiver because sometimes the phone is forgotten to put back in the receiver and the person can still hear the conversation on the line. Example on my ways when answering telephone calls: Me: “Yes, hello, goodmorning. This is Mizael Shareign Marcos, a staff nurse of medical ward. May I know who’s on the line please? How may I help you? Doctor: Hi. Goodmorning too. This is Doctor Omar Alotaibi. I’m calling from the Physician’s office. I’m about to follow-up with the condition of Mama X who has been experiencing shortness of breath and decrease saturation last night. How is she today? Me: Yes doctor. Thank you for the concern Doctor Omar. Mama X today is definitely fine. Vital signs is stable with occasional coughing, greenish secretions noted. Positioned is fowler’s position. Still receiving D5NSS 500 ml to run for 8 hours. Doctor: How about her x-ray and sputum collection? Me: The result has been forwarded in the system doctor. The x-ray reading is Pneumonia and the patient sputum culture results provided positive numerous staphylococcus bacteria. Doctor: If the patient has any allergies? Me: She’s an allergy to meropenem only doctor. Doctor: Please start to infuse Cefazolin 500 mg IV every 8 hours to be completed for 14 days. 8 Me: I just want to repeat your order doctor. To start Cefazolin 500 mg IV every 8 hours to be completed for 14 days. Doctor: Yes it is. I’ll be going to your unit to sign the physician form after 30 minutes. Me: Thank you so much doctor. Doctor: Welcome. 3. Written Formal Communication – A sample letter is provided and attached to the last page of this document. The letter of intent to renew my contract is addressed to Dr. Anne Blunden, the Executive Director of Nursing at King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz University Hospital in Riyadh.

04/30/2016 divya sharma
Lignin, a complex polyphenolic structure is covalently linked to cell wall polysaccharides as lignin-carbohydrate complexes. Xylanase helps in bleaching by hydrolyzing the xylan from lignin-xylan complex (Yin et al., 2011), thereby lowering the release of hazardous chemicals in the effluent and consequently decreasing the consumption of chlorine, hence creating an ecofriendly technology (Beg et al., 2001). Apart from xylanase, pectinase has also been used in pulp and paper industries. Pectin released from the fiber structure to aqueous phase during alkaline treatment step of pulping causes anionic trash, which interferes with the drainage. Pectinase helps to degrade the pectin released into the aqueous phase of pulp (Lund et al., 2004). Crude xylano-pectinolytic enzymes have been successfully used in biobleaching of plywood industrial waste soda anthraquinone pulp (Agrawal et al., 2016) and in biobleaching of mixed hardwood kraft pulp as reported earlier by us (Kaur et al., 2010). In this report, ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic enzymes have been applied in biobleaching of Soda anthraquinone (SAQ) pulp. The aim of this work is to compare and evaluate the bleaching potential of ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic enzymes with crude xylano-pectinolytic enzymes on plywood veneer SAQ pulp. This is the first report showing the use of ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic synergism in further reducing the amount of chemicals used for bleaching with significant improvement in various physical properties of pulp. The concurrent production of xylano-pectinolytic enzymes using agricultural wastes will make the bleaching process highly economical by reducing the enzymes production cost, bleaching chemicals cost and also the cost of waste water treatment .The use of ultrafiltration strategy will further reduce the use of toxic chemicals along with the production of superior quality paper. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Materials Xylan (birchwood) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and all other chemicals used were of high purity grade. Agro-residues such as wheat bran and citrus peel were purchased from local market. 2.2 Microbial Strain Bacillus pumilus AJK strain (MTCC Accession No.10414) was used for the simultaneous production of xylano-pectinolytic enzymes. 2.3 Enzyme Production & ultrafiltration The xylano-pectinolytic enzymes production was carried out in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml basal medium (g/l: peptone, 5.0 ; MgSO4.7H2O, 2.45 ; pH 7.0) supplemented with 2% wheat bran and 2% citrus peel under submerged fermentation. After autoclaving, inoculation was done with 2% inoculum of 21 h old and incubated at 37oC for 48h under continuous shaking conditions. Microfiltration was done by using 0.2 micron membrane cartridge in order to get the clear cell free extract. The clear supernatant was partially purified using 3kDa nominal molecular weight cut-off membrane to concentrate the extract ten fold and to remove low molecular weight impurities. While using 3 kDa membrane, discontinuous diafiltration was done three times by adding an equal volume of glycine-NaOH buffer (10 mM, pH 8.5) for maximum removal of impurities. 2.4 Detemination of enzyme activity Enzyme activity was determined by measuring the release of reducing sugars after enzymatic reaction using 3, 5-Dinitro-salicylic acid method (Miller, 1959). Assays were performed in the same way as described by Kaur et al., (2010). 2.5 Pulp sample The biobleaching ability of ultrafiltered enzymes was determined by incubating unbleached SAQ pulp sample consisting of 90% plywood industrial waste (veneer), 5% bamboo and 5% mixed hardwood with xylano-pectinolytic enzymes under optimized reaction conditions. Pulp consistency used for all the experiments was 10% and anthraquinone concentration was 0.08%. 2.6 Optimization of various reaction parameters using ultrafiltered enzymes Reaction parameters for enzymatic bleaching of SAQ pulp were optimized by using one variable at a time approach. Different reaction conditions such as temperature, pH, enzyme dose and retention time were optimized in order to obtain the best conditions. SAQ pulp was treated with xylano-pectinolytic enzymes under different pH values ranging from 7.5 to 9.5. Similarly, the pulp was treated with different enzyme dosages ranging between 2.0 to 7.0 IU of xylanase and 0.4 to 1.4 IU of pectinase per g of pulp at different retention time from 60 to 210 min and in variable temperature range from 45oC to 70oC. Control samples were also run under the same conditions using heat inactivated enzymes. After washing the pulp samples with distilled water, handsheets were made using standard TAPPI methods (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry Test Methods, 1996). Kappa number was determined (TAPPI T236) to find the most effective bleaching condition. 2.7 Bleaching steps of plywood veneer pulp Bleaching of control and enzyme treated pulp samples (under optimum reaction conditions) was done by using steps CDEPD1D2 (CD-Chlorination; EP-Alkali extraction; D1-Chlorine dioxide treatment 1; D2; Chlorine dioxide treatment 2). To determine the amount of reduction in chlorine consumption by enzymatically treated pulp, chlorination was done using different percentage of chlorine from 100% to 70%. In second step, alkali extraction was done by treating the pulp samples with 2.5% NaOH and 0.8% H2O2 at 80 0C for 2 h. Alkali treated pulp was washed with distilled water to remove extra alkali present in the pulp and a known amount of pulp was used to make handsheets for measuring the brightness and the left over pulp was treated with chlorine dioxide, D1 and D2 (1.0% and 0.3% ClO2) stages to remove residual lignin at 70oC for 3h. Reduction in consumption of chlorine dioxide in D1 and D2 stages was also determined. After all bleaching steps, pulp filtrate was used to determine the BOD and COD values of pulp effluents. 2.8 Analysis of different physical properties of pulp According to standard TAPPI test methods, handsheets were prepared and analyzed for different physical properties viz., Pulp freeness (TAPPI Method 227), Brightness (TAPPI Method 452), Breaking length (TAPPI Method 404), Burst factor (TAPPI Method 403), Tear factor (TAPPI Method 496), Viscosity (TAPPI Method 230) and Kappa number (TAPPI Method 236). All experiments were performed in triplicates.

02/10/2016
As per Montreal protocol the CFC refrigerants have been phased out already, as a result of their high ODP values. The HCFC refrigerants are also going to be phased out in the near future due to successive international amendments. Therefore the HFC refrigerants are being used as alternatives to them. But they are also the substances that are to be controlled under Kyoto protocol as they have high GWP. Now the HC refrigerants are proposed to be the best substitutes for these refrigerants. Owing to their high flammability they cannot be retrofitted as substitutes for those refrigerants practically. Thus there is a need to find a permanent solution. This paper includes a computational analysis of the performance of the two refrigerant mixtures, [M1 HFO-1234yf/HFC-32 (80/20) and M2 HFO-1234ze/HFC32 (80/20)] as the alternatives of HCFC-22 using REFPROP. This paper also focuses on the safety issues and environmental impact of the refrigerant mixtures. Our mixtures are shown to be safer, economic and environmentally acceptable option to replace HCFC-22 in air conditioning systems.

12/07/2015 Talha
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10/14/2015 azah
Preamble: With great technical development in today's world it is possible to achieve a comfortable interior conditions for a person using modern techniques and various mechanical means without taking into account any external climatic factors. Says a leading environmental architecture Arab Hassan Fathy in this area: "provided the architect of modern technology in this day and age all styles and innovations that spared the attention to what it is the external environment in which the natural building and living conditions." Architect also advises saying: "We should not deal with the environment as it deals with the paper that paint them as blank white, good construction requires that be in the process of its creation but newly added to the list of accepted environment. Obligatory respect and understanding and dealing with them and use them for the benefit of what you are doing "As Winston Churchill says:" We define our buildings patterns, but later are determined by the patterns of our lives. " Architecture was one of the most important means by which man he used to protect himself and his family from external factors (natural factors, animals and other threats to his life) has the climate was more influential on the life and style of human living these factors, so it has tried to cross the historic march to develop different types of shelters to protect them from the vagaries of climate and the factors that have varied these shelters and evolved with the development of human potential and abilities, Valmgaur and caves, and the houses of mud and modern houses, are only different forms of housing built by man to protect himself from the various factors and give itself the right place to live. Except that with the great development witnessed by the world in all scientific, technical and industrial fields, especially after the Industrial Revolution to the present day, and began the role of climatic factors falling a significant decline in the built environment design, and especially after he became a man able to give itself the best thermal conditions using modern techniques (hardware mechanical and electrical), all this to the great ignorance of what surrounds this built environment of the climatic conditions and the external environment, or

11/25/2014 Harla
A computer invasion is taking place in the field of education. As the world becomes increasingly reliant on computer technology, it is logical for individuals to consider entering the field of computer technology, which includes myself. It is apparent that technology has advanced to the point if there is a question concerning any subject matter, a clarification can immediately be found by using a computer. Technology has grown so much in the past few years that the world has shrunk and the people living in progressive nations have become dependent on the computer for business, pleasure, and education. Computers also make it possible for me to take this course online. There is a definite growth concerning the dependency on computers in the field of education, online classes are increasing rapidly and are providing opportunities to thousands of individuals who were previously denied the chance of receiving a higher education. “The most influential tool in the classrooms of today is the Internet, districts, schools, and teachers that are not dealing with this reality are truly doing a huge disservice to their students. As we progress in this technologically charged world, we face a very important question: what is to become the role of the teachers? Will they become obsolete” (Loyola)? There is no denying that the computer has invaded the classroom and it is here to stay, but students will continue to receive assignments, do research, write papers, and take tests. The teacher has to provide the assignments, give advice and guidance, plus evaluate the students’ progress and issue grades. “It appears that many strategies used by exemplary educators who teach face-to-face can be transposed to the online teaching environment with similar positive results. Specifically, there is a need for educators, whether classroom or online, to challenge and affirm the personal worth of learners” (Edwards). Online generated classes are becoming more popular. Both the teacher and the students are having to adapt to these changes. The student has to be more responsible and learn to work independently while concentrating on getting the assignment done on time. The teacher has become more innovative in the creation of assignments and make postings for the students. It is wrong to think that the computer could ever take the place of a teacher. Currently, there is a challenge issued to every school district in our nation for computers to be placed in every classroom and at the disposal for every student. Last year President Obama announced, “a federal effort to get a laptop, tablet, or smart phone into the hands of every student in every school in the United States and to pipe in enough bandwidth to get all 49.8 million American kids online simultaneously by 2017. Bulky textbooks will be replaced by flat screens. Worksheets will be stored in the cloud, not clunky Trapper Keepers. The Dewey decimal system will give way to Google” (Scherer). The expediency in which materials are published on the Internet is almost instant, whereas printed material published in books may be outdated. By placing computers in the classrooms, it becomes a useful tool for learning and challenges each student to become technically knowledgeable. On the other hand, students who graduate and were trained to use the computer, will bring a higher level of skill to any job they may attain. According to a report released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts, “an additional 785,700 job increase in the employment of computer technicians in the period between 2008 and 2018. This figure is faster than expected average for other occupations. Data from the Bureau of Labor show median annual wages of computer support specialists were $47,360 in May of 2009” (Lacey). Job opportunities in the computerized systems will be endless with all the businesses relying on computerization for efficient business transactions and record keeping. As time proceeds, there will be additional jobs created to take care of the changes made in computers as it progresses into the future. With the public being compelled to work with computers, the opinions of the users are both pro and con. As a pro illustration of public opinion of computers in classrooms, “research done in the area of computers in classrooms used students, teachers, and computers for performance and came to the conclusion that students and teachers alike embraced the technology and recognized that challenges and areas for improvement still exist. Unfortunately, the data showed a school-wide commitment to this initiative’s success and that this particular school’s general motto of preparing students for academic success was reflected in this effort” (Broussard). This study was completed in Houston, Texas among 9th thru 12th graders. There are many similar reports submitted by researchers throughout the United States who gather data by telephone, flyers, emails, etc. “From investigating instructor attitudes toward technology and the utilization of computers in schools, the researchers concluded that the use of technology for curricular purposes is almost exclusively a function of teachers’ access to that technology” (Norris, 2003). There is a trend among the reports; teachers, students, and parents all reported astonishment with the results, even though small, the results will continue to increase and advances will be made for the use of the computer in the classroom. As technology continues to advance, progress in the field of education, classrooms, as the way we know them today, may be extinct. Teachers will no longer be at the chalkboard with a piece of chalk in his hand. Students will not longer be at desks with pencil and paper taking notes. Students may become a part of the “home schooled” concept. Their assignments will be received and sent over the Internet. This could prove to be advantageous for many different reasons; it would take social pressures off the student, it would stop bullying. There would be no need to purchase uniforms or expensive clothing and shoes to be impressive. If online schooling does take place in the future, the students would have to find other ways to socialize. Living to relate and interact with others is an essential important part of life; this will be accomplished through the use of a computer in some form. To summarize, the computer is here to stay. Our way of life as we know it today will change as computer technology advances. Teachers and students alike will change to keep up with the world of computer technology. The computer offers immense information and students with computer skills will be better equipped for jobs which predicted for the future is outstanding. The dependency on computers is expanding rapidly. The classroom will no doubt change and teachers will also change teaching methods. Computer technology in schools creates a setting of eagerness to learn not only academics, but become skilled with the functions of the computers. Like it or not, computers have become an integral part of life.

10/06/2014 vinay
Pharmaceutical analysis having the necessary procedures to determine “identity, strength, quality and purity of the medicinal substances pharmaceutical drug products. The quality control division mainly managed by pharmaceutical analyst and place a major role. Mainly analytical chemistry involves separating identifying and determining the relative amounts of components in a drug substance. Modern pharmaceutical analysis must need the following requirements. 1. The analysis should take minimal time. 2. The accuracy of the analysis should meet the demands of the pharmacopoeia. 3. The analysis should perform with a minimal cost. 4. Selectivity and precision of the selected method should be good. 1.2 TYPICAL INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES: The selected method for the estimation of the drugs are classified as physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological ones of the them, physical and physicochemical methods are mostly used physical method used for the studying of physical properties of substance. These physical properties are solubility, transparency degree of turbidity, colour density or specific gravity (for liquids), moisture content, melting, freezing and boiling points. Physicochemical methods. This physicochemical method are used for estimation of polarimetry, optical refractometry, emission and fluorescent methods of analysis, photometry including spectrophotometry, nephlometry, turbidometry and chromatography methods are preferable.

08/23/2014 Brittany


08/23/2014 Brittany
Arthur Miller’s article “Why I Wrote the Crucible” assisted me with the understanding of the play by supporting me with specific parallel draws between the play and the article. In Arthur Miller’s play, he chose to use the Salem witch trials to act in place of the McCarthy Era due to the fact that the American society was going through similar events that Salem went through. In the 1950s paranoia towards communism broke out, and many citizens were terrified. The H.U.A.C. (house un-American activities committee) led by Joseph McCarthy, was an organization that had the obligation to victimize any communists they were aware of. The organization also had the responsibility of searching for communists to take into questioning. In 1692 the Salem witch trials consisted of innocent people being accused of witch craft. While in trial, they were consistently asked (88) “Did you ever see anyone with the Devil?” being that they never actually practiced witch craft and had never seen the devil, they would automatically accuse other innocent people just to save their own selfish lives. Miller realized Salem imitated the McCarthy Era because the people only cared about protecting themselves from execution as did the people who were tangled with the H.U.A.C. They would accuse other innocent humans of being communists with no humanity; they had no care in the world. The only way out of being executed was to accuse others of the same “crime.” The people were threatened/pressured into naming other innocent people, for when they did not do so, it would lead to the death penalty. As said in the article by Arthur Miller (19) “By denying that there is any reason… for you to be accused…that mere chance picked you out…you would have to be a crypto-Luciferian to say that…not a good idea if you wanted to go back to your farm.” The court would automatically believe you were on the devils side if you denied to be guilty, and they would punish you. In the 1950s America was in the state of the civil rights movement. The people were fighting for equality because the African Americans were treated poorly and were the outvoted and were being persecuted by society. Miller characterized Tituba as a colored woman. She was Parris’s servant. She was one of the very first persons to be accused of witch craft. Due to the fact that she was a minority and a colored woman, it made it easier for the people to accuse her of witch craft. Although she was innocent she chose to plead guilty because that was the only way she could save her life. Arthur’s purpose in writing “The Crucible” was to show the society what they were too blind to see. He paralleled the events from the McCarthy Era to the Salem witch trials. Miller was able to create a great awareness for future purposes. He showed the society the unjust decisions the court forced onto the people. They were racist and unjust when people did not plea to be a communist or to have practiced witch craft, or when they denied having knowledge of any other sinner.

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