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PlagTracker.com - A Free Online Plagiarism Detector

For a free online plagiarism detector, check out PlagChecker.com. Simply upload a paper, let PlagTracker scan it for plagiarism and review the plagiarism report. The checker compares the content of the paper to the content of over 14 billion webpages and 5 million academic papers to see if any content has been plagiarized.


Who Needs PlagTracker?

PlagTracker is not just a resource for teachers and professors. While it does a good job of helping instructors check papers when they suspect plagiarism, it is designed to help prevent plagiarism in the first place. Students can use PlagTracker to check their papers for plagiarism before they turn them in and receive suggestions on information to change or advice on what needs to be cited. Website creators can also check the content of their websites to make sure they are not copying the content of another website or author. Using PlagTracker can help users avoid failing grades, lawsuits and tarnished reputations, all within a few minutes.

Using PlagTracket

The plagiarism checker at PlagChecker is absolutely free, which means you have the ability to check as many papers as you want, as often as you want. It only takes a couple of minutes to check a paper, but the program may take more time to develop a report based on the length of the paper and the amount of plagiarized content. Once the report appears, any potentially plagiarized portions of your paper are highlighted in red to make them easy to see. Clicking on the highlighted portions of the paper will reveal a list of the site or sites your content may have come from. You can click on the links for the sites on the right-hand page and automatically access the content that is similar to your own.

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A Sample Plagiarism Report


Your paper is also given a plagiarism rate to show how much of your paper may be plagiarized. Most papers, especially biographies and basic research papers, may have a small percentage of plagiarized content because there are only so many ways to present information. This is okay if the small amount of plagiarized content consists of general facts, but not okay if the small amount of plagiarized content cites another author’s opinion as your own.

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Low Plag Rate


PlagTracker offers something different from a lot of plagiarism checkers out there because of the unique algorithm the site uses to detect plagiarism and the large number of websites and papers it checks. Users do not have to download anything in order to use the plagiarism checker and are not required to pay a fee to use the checker or view the plagiarism report, nor are they overwhelmed with requests to purchase other products after using the checker. The goal of PlagTracker is simple: help students and other writers avoid plagiarizing the works of others in their papers.


Written June 15, 2012 by Stacy Zeiger


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10/02/2017 hubert francis acheampong
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is to provide a review of the literature relevant to the research goals of this thesis. It places a particular emphasis on works concerned with reverse logistics flow of products and services in manufacturing sector. It continues with the contributions other researchers made on reverse logistics. This is followed by discussions of reverse logistics drivers, processes and activities and elements in a manufacturing firm. In its final parts it discusses the role of reverse logistics on customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2.1. DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS 2.1.1 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management is essentially an integrative process that seeks to optimize the flows of materials and supplies through the organization and its operations to the customer. It is essentially a planning process and an information-based activity. Requirements from the marketplace are translated into production requirements and then into materials requirements through this planning process. It is now being recognized that, for the real benefits of the logistics concept to be realized, there is a need to extend the logic of logistics upstream to suppliers and downstream to final customers. This is the concept of supply chain management. Global logistics: (new directions in supply chain management)/ [edited by] Donald waters. — 6th edition. Logistics is characterized by the board of organizations administration as the procedure of arranging, executing, and controlling the proficient, financially savvy stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed products and related data from the purpose of inception to the point of utilization with the end goal of adjusting to client prerequisites. Logistics is for the most part the nitty gritty association and execution of an unpredictable operation in a general negotiating prudence, Logistics is the administration of the stream of things between the purpose of root and the purpose of utilization with a specific end goal to meet necessities of clients or organizations. The assets overseen in coordinations (Logistics) can incorporate physical things, for example, nourishment, materials, creatures, hardware, and fluids; and in addition dynamic things, for example, time and data. The coordinations of physical things generally includes the reconciliation of data stream, material dealing with, generation, bundling, stock, transportation, warehousing, returns and frequently security. In military science, coordinations is worried about keeping up armed force supply lines while upsetting those of the adversary, since an outfitted compel without assets and transportation is exposed. Military coordinations was at that point rehearsed in the antiquated world and as current military have a huge requirement for coordinations arrangements, propelled usage have been created. In military coordinations, coordinations officers oversee how and when to move assets to the spots they are required 2.1.2 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management is entire network of entities, internal and external members with the common interest of satisfying the final consumer. These members include supply of raw material, manufacturers who convert raw material into product, warehouse/ stores that stores the product transportation that convey the product to the distributor, retailer, as they intern transport the product to the final consumer. Supply chain underlie esteem chain in line of the fact that, without them, no producer can give consumers what they need, when and where they need it at the value they need it. Manufacturers compete with each other through their supply chains, and no level of change at the producers end can compensate for the insignificancies in any inventory network which limit the producer capacity to satisfaction. (Business dictionary) August 6, 2015 by Surbhi S 2.1.3 CONTRASTS BETWEEN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN 1. Logistics management is centered more around interior (expansive) physical development of items and materials, while SCM incorporates Logistics management notwithstanding having a general perspective of materials, data, budgetary and operational procedures. SCM concentrates on both interior and outside sources and plans for the ideal results. 2. Description; Logistics is the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling strategies for the proficient and powerful transportation and capacity of merchandise, including administrations and related data, yet store network from the purpose of root to the point of utilization. Store network management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, data, and funds as they move in a procedure from supplier to producer to distributer to retailer to the final consumer. 3. Relationship with different divisions, Logistics does not specifically takes an interest in other office or portions, (SCM) May take an interest in activities such as, research and advertising that may directly affect the store network 4. The primary point of Logistics is full consumer loyalty. Then again, the primary point behind Supply Chain Management is competitive edge. 5. Logistics is just a movement of Supply Chain Management. 6. (L) Part of Supply Chain Management, (SC) Part of Management of the Company Source: Surbhi S 2.1.4. CONCLUSION Logistics is an extremely old term, ideal from the earliest starting point used as a piece of the military, for the upkeep, stockpiling and transportation of outfitted drive individuals and items. Nowadays, this term is used as a piece of various circles, not especially in the military after the progression of Supply Chain Management. It has moreover been said that SCM is an alternative over Logistics Management and what's more SCM contains Logistics. Both are indivisible. Consequently they don't invalidate however supplement each other. SCM makes Logistics be in contact with the transportation, stockpiling and movement gathering. Distinction amongst logistics and supply chain management 2.1.5. REVERSE LOGISTICS reverse logistics is defined by The Council of Logistics Management as ``The way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, financially savvy stream of raw materials, in-progress stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of beginning with the end goal of recovering worth or appropriate transfer/ disposal``. Return Logistics is a part of logistics. Generally when logistics is mentioned just a single way is thought of. That is the point at which the merchandise leaves the organization and is transported to the client. Reverse Logistics handles issues, for example, remanufacturing, renovating, reusing or transfer to utilize assets adequately. Dowlatshahi (2000,) Reverse logistics is a procedure in which a producer deliberately acknowledges vitally sent items or parts from the point for utilization for conceivable reusing, remanufacturing or /disposal transfer." Another definition by Hawks (2006) is that reverse logistics is "the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, practical stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of starting point with the end goal of recovering worth or legitimate transfer or disposal." She at that point keeps on clarifying it as reverse logistics is the way toward moving products from their final destination with the end goal of catching wealth, or appropriate transfer/disposal. A third meaning of invert coordinations by Larsen, Schary Mikkola and Philip (2007) is that reverse logistics envelops a wide scope of exercises inside, and outside of, logistics including: item returns, source decrease, reusing, material conveyance, reuse of material, squander disposal/ transfer and revamping, repair and remanufacturing. 2.2. REVERSE FLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE Overseeing reverse logistics is presently an essential component of supply chain management and, sometimes, a benefit creating capacity. Reverse logistics is turning into an essential part of supply chain management. Many organizations that, already, did not give much time, vitality or attention to the administration and comprehension of reverse have started to focus. Firms have started to benchmark return operations with best in-class administrators. Industries that spend significant time in returns have seen interest for their administrations extraordinarily expanded. Developing enthusiasm for natural concern around the world, constrained organizations to take part in reverse management, for example, re-utilization of items and materials and reusing. For all intents and purposes, the vast majority of the organizations manage returns of some nature on account of issues, for example, promoting returns, harm or quality issues, overloads, renovating or remanufacturing. Handling returns present a great challenge for companies, while in many cases becomes a necessity for keeping customers satisfaction to a certain level. Reverse logistics operations in a supply chain may be considered as an introduction to innovative services of a company's portfolio. They may importantly affect an association's key execution as far as market viability, and additionally, inward cost effectiveness. Through reverse logistics management advancement, it might be conceivable to extend income through market development because of record customization, benefit enlargement and enhanced consumer loyalty. Reverse management is turning into a territory of upper hand. For example, the accompanying; 1. Positive normal impact: institutions acts, commitment laws," oblige creators to develop an approach for the social occasion and reuse of things toward the complete of their life cycle 2. Competitiveness progressions, proficient treatment of returns leads to reduced costs, increased profits and improved customer service. 3. Regaining esteem: effective reverse logistics can catch values from reusing items or parts or recycling materials 4. Financial matters (immediate and backhanded), return management activities can lead to addition to organizations through lesser utilization of raw materials, including value addition of product recovery processes, decrease in costs of disposal, and so forth. The company likewise gets engaged with return management processes because of competition in the marketing, rivalry, as well as vital issues (strategic), which may bring indirect benefits. A conservative estimate is that reverse logistics is a significant portion of some major companies and the economies as a whole, such as the U.S, China, England as well as middle income economies such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya etc. Logistics costs were estimated to account for approximately 8.5% of the U.S economy in 2013. However, the exact amount of reverse logistics activity is difficult to determine because most companies do not carefully track reverse logistics costs. For the firms studied in this research, reverse logistics accounted, on average, for approximately 4.25% of total logistics costs. Applying this mean percentage to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), reverse logistics costs are estimated to be approximately one half of a percent of the total U.S. GDP. (”Delaney estimates that logistics costs accounted for $921 billion in 1999”). Based on the Delaney respondent sample, is that reverse logistics costs amounted to approximately $39.1425 billion in 1999. The size, scope, and impact of reverse logistics vary by industry and channel position as well as the type of distribution channel. It is clear, however that, the overall amount of reverse logistics activity in the economy is large and still growing. Within specific industries, reverse logistics activities can be critical for the firm. Generally, when the value of the product is large, or the return rate is great, much more effort has to be spent on improving return processes. In 1998, the remanufactured auto parts market was estimated by the Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA) at $36 billion. Rebuilding and remanufacturing conserve a considerable amount of resources. As indicated by the APRA, around half of a car starter is recuperated in the reconstructing procedure. This may bring about sparing a few million gallons of unrefined petroleum, and also steel and different metals. The APRA gauges that crude materials spared by remanufacturing worldwide would fill 155,000 railroad autos yearly, a travel more than 1,100 miles in length. 2.3 DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS Past reviews recommended that reverse management can be influenced by different elements inside and outside an organization. Internal considerations involved senior management commitment, support and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities (Routroy, 2009), Outside elements incorporate weights from government (regulatory bodies), customers, suppliers and competitors (Carter and Ellram, 1998; Wu and Cheng, 2006), Broad audit of the accessible writing uncovers four essential drivers for reverse logistics: regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility and expected business benefits. For example, Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) and Daher et al. (2006) contended that the primary reasons that make firms endeavor to adopt reverse logistics are: 1. Environmental enactment, which force organizations to reclaim their flawed items, waste or discharges 2. Economic benefits of using returned products in the production process such as recapture of value and recovery of assets 3. Growing public environmental laws and awareness 2.3.1.0 EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS In the Ghanaian context, there are no previous studies found investigating the drivers for reverse logistics. However, related studies tend to emphasis the importance of the four drivers identified earlier. For instance, Raman and Peir (2006) conducted interviews with 10 SMEs in Malaysia and found that the main drivers for corporate social responsibility activities (waste recycling, paperless technology and use of biodegradable containers) are: professional code of conduct and ethics, customer pressures (for firms that are suppliers to venders/ MNCs), expected financial returns (especially from recycling), personal values of the owner and reputation. The following subsections illustrate each of the stipulated drivers for reverse logistics (regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility, expected business benefits and the internal drivers) and their roles in motivating firms to adopt reverse logistics initiatives. 2.3.1.1 REGULATIONS Business organizations are expected to adopt green purchasing in response to environmental regulations set by various regulatory institutions such as government bodies inside the country, regulations in other countries (mainly import and export companies),such as the fan milk coca cola and Guinness etc. in the industry in Ghana in addition to regulations set by the parent companies. Such regulations take the form of formal rules, laws, sanctions and incentives (Scott, 1995). Firms try to avoid potential costs, uncertainty and legal liabilities inherent in existing and anticipated regulations (Clemens and Douglas, 2006). Moreover, regulatory institutions may provide inducements for organizations to behave in a certain way. Inducement mechanisms include providing incentives to organizations for conforming to the demands of the agency that offers the inducement as well as punishment to offenders (Grewal and Dharwadkar, 2002). Currently, there are more strict legislations regulations in many countries, especially in Europe, that require business organizations to take responsibility for their products from production up to the final disposal which strengths producers to assume liability for their items toward the finish of their product life, and RoSH, which requires safe disposal or recycling of consumed products. Previous studies found that firms adopt reverse logistics initiatives in response to these regulations (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Ravi et al., 2005; Murphy and Poist, 2003; Blumberg, 1999; Carter and Ellram, 1998). In Ghana, there are no government regulations that directly require business organizations to undertake reverse logistics activities. Example is Automakers worldwide are ramping up the industry's biggest-ever recall after parts supplier Takata, under pressure from U.S. authorities, agreed earlier last year to declare more of its air bags as defective in the United States and other countries. fortune Toyota -recall-takata airbag cars 2.3.1.2 CUSTOMER PRESSURES Customers represent the major financial stakeholders that buy products and services of organizations. As such, customers can exert considerable pressures and may communicate goals of sustainability or environmental performance on these organizations. Past studies found that client weight is one of the significant drivers for reverse supply chain management. For example, Alvarez-Gil et al. (2007) found that clients have huge impact on final decision on reverse supply chain programmes in an organization. Similarly, Carter and Ellram (1998) emphasized the importance of pressures from consumers and intermediate customers such as retailers, in affecting reverse logistics activities. 2.3.1.3 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES The enthusiasm for reverse supply chain is relied upon to radiate not just from the outer condition (regulations, profit and customers) but additionally from the inside awareness of other's expectations of a firm towards the general public in which it exists. For SRM, such affectability is escalated by the continually expanding natural issues, for example, a worldwide temperature alteration and contamination. Such problems are expected to raise the awareness of business firms to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. The ordinary supply chains are based on a linear production paradigm, which relies on constant input of virgin natural resources and unlimited environmental capacity for assimilation of wastes (Geyer and Jackson, 2004).Therefore, through reverse logistics, a firm can be more socially responsible by considering minimizing its use of virgin materials and reducing the level of waste. Drumwright (1994), Murphy and Poist (2003) and Ravi et al. (2005) discovered that, social responsibility has significant impact on green supply chain initiatives (green purchasing and Social responsibility), Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse with more than 1,100 victims as a reasons of substandard materials used as well as the persistent flooding in Accra and resent fire outbreak at circle have led to widespread discussions about corporate social responsibility across global reverse supply chains. 2.3.1.4 EXPECTED BUSINESS BENEFITS Revenue (profit) and financial returns are the most vital objectives of business organizations. In this sense, every decision is evaluated based on cost–benefit criteria. Environmental initiatives are expected to come along with this general rule, i.e., a firm needs to expect business benefits from green initiatives before it engages in these initiatives. Expected business benefits demonstrate that organizations adopt reverse logistics activities, for example, reusing and reusing of items and materials, in foresight of the way that these activities can possibly enhance gainfulness of these organizations through cost minimization and expanded incomes (Stock et al., 2002). Indeed, even without prompt benefit, adopt reverse logistics activities might be useful to create potential immaterial advantages, for example, change of corporate picture (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Toffel, 2004). Past reviews found that normal business benefits effectively affect reverse logistics activities. (Blumberg, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005) Review about US`s economy shows that expected benefits, such as cost savings, marketing opportunities and financial returns from resale of return products, represent important drivers for green initiatives. For instance, Anbumozhi and Kanda (2005,) argued that “companies in Asia need to see business value to justify the cost associated with compliance to a formal environmental standard” Zulkifli and Amran (2006,) argued that, “companies in Malaysia follow corporate social responsibility practices if they can get something in return.” 2.3.2.0. INTERNAL FACTORS The Internal factors include top management commitment and support, and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities. 2.4.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES As the former discourse shows, there are numerous exercises that could fall under the heading of reverse logistics, as defined already. Of all, the reverse logistics obligations inside an organization, which exercises qualify as reverse logistics? 2.4.1.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES An autonomous reverse logistics process begins with the end client choice that the item has achieved the finish of its life, harms or defective and should be discarding, repair or replicate the materials (Blumberg, 2005). These processes may include asset recovery and recycling management, field and technical support, parts planning, returns and repair management and service parts logistics (Biederman, 2006). In general, return process activities can be grouped into three stages, namely (1) product collection and transportation, (2) inspection, separation and sorting, and (3) recovery and disposition also known as the reverse logistics operations. 2.4.1.1 PRODUCT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION Typical reverse logistics activities would be the processes a company uses to collect used, damaged, unwanted, or outdated products, as well as packaging and shipping materials from the end-user or the reseller. Once the item has been received by the company, the firm has other disposal options from which to choose. When a product is nearing its expiring date or damage, customers never put their attention on it rather discard it or returned to the company for refund. So collection is the base of the reverse logistic and analyzing it`s transportation network design of supply chain is initiated.’ the blend of various system framework is key to have the capacity to coordinate well among the different individuals from the store network of the organizations: provider, clients, Distribution Center, Cross-docking and last mile approach. The principle preferred standpoint of this system is decreasing cost, time and enhancing the responsiveness. And furthermore this is the ideal system for gathering item reversely. 2.4.1.2 INSPECTION, SEPARATION AND SORTING Returned products need to be classified according to quality and composition in order to determine the route in the reverse chain (Le Blanc, 2006 PWC, 2008). The inspection, separation and sorting stage occurs at the collection point where the products are inspected and sorted on the basis of their quality (Ji, 2008; Wang et al., 2010) and then separated, which entails splitting the flow of used products according to their disposal options (Yimsiri, 2009). This stage thus denotes all operations determining whether a given product is reusable and in what way (Yimsiri, 2009), Inspection, separation and sorting may encompass testing, disassembly, shredding and storage (Wang et al., 2010; Yimsiri, 2009). After this stage, the organization must determine the reuse manner of the product and classify it (Ji, 2008) in order to move to the next stages of reprocessing, recovery and disposition. 2.4.1.3 RECOVERY AND DISPOSITION Recovery is the process of regain or discovering value from the returned product, components and materials (Le Blanc, 2006). Product disposition refers to the different ways organizations attempt to recover the costs of products that are being returned (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition involves putting the product back into inventory or temporary storage, repackaging, repair, refurbishing or remanufacturing (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition thus refers to the determination of ultimate outcome for the product (Genchev et al., 2010). Ultimately, “final disposition” refers to the exit route returned products finally take (Bernon et al., 2011). At the end of these processes, numerous disposition options are available to organizations. These reverse logistics disposition options form part of the activities and processes in reverse logistics. 2.5.0. TYPES/RATIONALE FOR RETURENS Understanding why returns occur helps identify opportunities for improving supply chain processes and decision-making.There are many types of returns that need to be managed, each of which poses unique challenges. Based on The Global Supply Chain forum, we group returns into five categories: consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, product recalls and environmental returns. 1. Consumer Returns: consumer returns product defects are generally the largest category of returns. Many companies have liberal returns policies that make it easy for consumers to return products. This is based on the belief that consumers will continue to purchase from a retailer with liberal returns policies which increase the retailer’s revenue. Main examples include: Defective returns: At the consumer or end-customer level, defective product comes back after purchase and some level of use. Such returns could indicate quality problems that need to be resolved in manufacturing or distribution. 2. No fault found’ returns: But many times firms find no defects upon inspection of returned products. These no fault found returns may be indicative of customers not understanding how to use the product appropriately, not being able to properly install the product, or simply finding that the product was not what they were expecting. These returns signal the need to re-engineer the product or communicate more effectively to customers about what to expect and how to use/install the product. Understanding the reasons for defective returns and no fault found returns requires the involvement of a cross-functional team that might include product design, engineering, packaging, manufacturing, distribution and marketing. The goal is to identify why these types of returns are happening and work to reduce their volume. 1. Marketing Returns: marketing returns consist of products returned from a position forward in the supply chain. At the retail or intermediary level, returns often come back due to slow-moving stock, quality issues, end-of-season inventory adjustments, or as a means to release capital so customers can buy more from the company. Other examples of marketing returns include: a. Close-cut returns, which are first quality products that the retailer or distributor has decided to no longer carry b. job-outs, where seasonal merchandise is returned after the season’s end c. Surplus goods un- purchase As retailer power in the channel continues to grow, manufacturers are being asked to bear an increased responsibility for taking back unwanted retail-level inventory. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as “fresh” product can command a higher margin than old product, and can be more competitive in the battle for consumer cedis. On the other hand, manufacturers get stuck with old inventory. Such product may have diminished market value, thus making profitable sales to other customers increasingly doubtful. The key to managing these returns is to try to avoid them. That doesn’t mean playing hardball with customers by simply refusing returns; rather, it means better matching demand and supply in the first place. 2. Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned in order to be reuse. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as tricycles ice containers also known as coreman equipment, and reusable containers. 3. Product Recalls: product recalls are a form of return that are usually initiated because of a safety or quality issue. Recalls can be voluntary or mandated by a government agency. They require more up-front planning than most other return types, and this planning is central to managing them effectively. Oct 26, 2016 Toyota Motor (tm, -0.32%) on Wednesday said it was recalling about 5.8 million cars at home and abroad over potentially faulty air bag inflators made by Takata 4. Environmental Returns: environment returns include the disposal of hazardous materials or abiding by environmental regulations. Environmental returns are different from other types of returns because they might include regulatory compliance that limits the set of options. Additionally, there are often stringent documentation and audit requirements 2.6.0 REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES The activities and alternatives in reverse logistics are similar and in a few occasions seen as the same. These activities and choices incorporate the accompanying: come back to the supplier, reuse, exchange, redistribution, rescue, repair, recondition, revamp, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal which may include either incineration or landfill. Each of these choices will now be depicted in further detail 2.6.1. RETURN TO THE SELLER: A product for which a customer wants a refund due to failure to meet the expectation of the customer, below the standard of performance. In this option, the organizations can return the product to the supplier for a full refund (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Returns to the seller can also be done when there was an incentive to order larger quantities than normal and if this excess product cannot be sold, and the buyer would be allowed to return these additional units 2.6.2 REUSE: Reuse essentially implies that the item can be utilized again for a reason like the one for which it was outlined or reused for another reasons (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reuse likewise includes repairing, revamping, washing or recouping utilized items. Reprocessed material is then used to deliver new items or to make results of lesser or esteem (Sarkis et al., 2010). There are a few alternatives in the reuse movement in reverse logistics in food and beverage industry in Ghana. 2.6.3. RESELL: In this alternative the item is sold once more. The organization has numerous choices as far as exchanging. Organization can either offer the items in general or in a crushed frame (Hugo et al., 2004). For example, they can sell the item to who would use it for occasional celebrations like birth date parties Christmas scrap merchants etc. where the costs may rely upon the state of item, the organization can offer items that are of less quality to a rescue organization that will regularly trade these items to outside business sectors (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). 2.6.4. REDISTRIBUTION: Redistribution means directing reusable items to a new market, or moving the item to potential new users (Krikke, 2009b; Yimsiri, 2009). In addition, redistribution can also take place where the organization plans to sell the recycled product, but it is essential for the organization to determine whether or not there is a market for the recycled products (Roy, 2003). 2.6.5. SALVAGE/ SCRAPE: Salvage is firmly identified with redistribution where an item is sold to an agent or some low-income client (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Nonetheless, rescue items have been utilized or damage, and can at no time in the future be sold as new. In salvage, items lose value in respect to the measure of utilization and the most troublesome piece of overseeing salvage is deciding its value. Any profitable materials that can be recovered will be salvage before the rest to the landfill 2.6.6. REPAIR/RECONDITION: According to Bhamra and Hon (2004) Repair is simply the “correction of specified faults of a product”. Repair/repackage relates to a moderate magnitude of corrections or repackaging which allows the product to be reused (Ji, 2008). Bhamra and Hon (2004) clarify reconditioning as the "means of giving back a utilized item to a tasteful working molding that might be mediocre compared to the first product". 2.6.7. REFURBISH: Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold. 2.6.8. RENOVATION (also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life. 2.6.9. REMANUFACTURING: is the reproduction of an item to specifications of the original manufactured item using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. Remanufacturing is a form of a product recovery process that differs from other recovery processes in its completeness: a remanufactured item should match the same customer expectation as the previous one. 2.6.10. RECYCLING: is the “process of converting the return or used products, components, and/or materials from the field, disassemble, separating them into categories of like materials, and processing into new form of products, components, and or materials” (Beamon, 1999). 2.6.11. DONATION: Sometimes organizations decide to give the returned products to charity organizations without receiving any compensation for these products. As a rule, organizations make use of this option because they pride themselves on being good corporate citizens and feel that it is important to support charities (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 2001). 2.6.12. DISPOSAL: Disposal is required for items that can't be reused for specialized or cost reasons. This would apply, say, to items rejected at the division level inferable from unreasonable repair prerequisites additionally to items without palatable market potential, say, attributable to out of date quality. The disposal done through the following two methods 2.6.12.1. INCINERATION. Is the “destruction of product that is harmful to human and other living things as well as the other products of the company through an electronic mean. 2.6.12.2. LANDFILLS the final disposal of solid waste on land (Enviro-Glossary) this involves controlled environments for the burying of waste (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Figure 2.1 illustrates the reverse logistics process and activities based on the above discussions Source: Mohammed shaik 2.7. RETURNS MANAGEMENT/ REVERSE LOGISTICS ELEMENTS, CONSTITUENT OR PRINCIPLES Returns management is that part of supply chain management that includes returns, reverse logistics, gatekeeping, and avoidance. This definition includes activities that are critical to supply chain management such as avoidance and gatekeeping. The management of the stream of materials is the concentration of this Chapter. As it will turn out to be clear, the different modalities for taking care of profits used by the exploration respondents can either positively or adversely affect an organization's main concern. What takes after is a definite examination of those elements characterized by the exploration group as key reverse logistics management components. 2.7.1. GATEKEEPING/ AVOIDANCE. This means making decisions to limit the number of items that are allowed into the reverse flow. Successful gatekeeping allows management to control and reduce returns without damaging customer service. Gatekeeping eliminates the cost associated with returning products that should not be returned or the cost of products returned to the inappropriate destination. The point of entry into the reverse flow is the best point to eliminate unnecessary cost and management of materials by screening unwanted returned merchandise. This Involve finding ways to minimize the number of return requests. It can include ensuring that the quality of product and user friendliness for the consumer is at the highest attainable level before the product is sold and shipped, or changing promotional programs to increase sales when there is no/little realistic chance that the product shipped to the customer will be sold. 2.7.2. COMPACT/ DISPOSITION CYCLE TIME Another basic component to fruitful reverse logistics management is having short disposition process durations. The organizations that is, best at dealing with their reverse logistics management procedures are capable at gatekeeping, as depicted previously. These organizations are additionally ready to diminish process durations identified with return item choices, development, and preparing. While most returned item does not age well, plainly many firms have not found how to turn away an extensive maturing process on their profits. Frequently, when material regularly returns to a dissemination focus, it is uncertain whether the things are: deficient, can be reused or restored, or should be sent to a landfill. The test of running a circulation framework in forward is troublesome; it is harder still for organizations to allot assets to deal with the framework in reverse logistics. Some portion of the trouble that organizations have in compacting disposition process duration is that there does not appear to be much reward for assuming liability and settling on an auspicious (favorable conditions) choice with reference to how item ought to be manner. Representatives experience issues settling on choices when the choice guidelines are not obviously expressed and special cases are regularly made. It is less demanding to pass the item back to the past stage in the channel, since that lessens both individual and organization chance. 2.7.3. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEMS Adequate and accurate information is necessary for effective management of returns. It also known amongst the most major issues that organizations confront in the execution of a reverse logistics operation is the deficiency of good data frameworks. Not very many firms have effectively robotized the data encompassing the arrival procedure. In light of the reaction of firms incorporated into the research, reverse logisticians appear to feel that about zero great reverse logistics management data frameworks are industrially accessible. Since data frameworks assets are typically extended as far as possible, those assets are generally not accessible for reverse logistics applications. To function admirably, a reverse logistics data framework must be adoptable. Notwithstanding the issues depicted above, robotization of those procedures is troublesome in light of the fact that, reverse management forms have such a variety of special cases. Reverse management is ordinarily a limit traversing (moving) process between firms or specialty units of a similar organization. Creating frameworks that need to work crosswise over limits adds extra unpredictability to the issue. For the retailer, a framework that tracks returns at store level is alluring. The framework ought to make a database at the store level so that the retailer can start following returned item and tail it to the distance back through the pipeline. Additionally, the stores can check whether the buyers are conferring to the rules and regulations of the reverse supply chain or taken an undue advantages to violate the system “return manhandle” or attempting to exploit the store. These advantages have been acknowledged on the grounds that, the firm has perceived the main issue effect of reverse management and doled out its assets to chip away at reverse management frameworks issues. 2.7.3. 1. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM TRANSACTION PROCESSING In a genuinely coordinated inventory network, everybody in the store network can track item as it pushes ahead through the channel. While there are not very many supply chains that truly work this well, there are virtually none that work backward (reverse). Most firms can't track returns inside their own company, considerably less some place outside of their firm due to lack of reverse logistics systems in place. 2.7.3.2. RETAILER When rules and policies regarding returns are not well understood by partners, then its management can be very difficult as partners may not be willing to accept responsibility for such things as damages and defect. Supply chain conflict usually results into poor coordination which is fundamental to supply chain efficiency. A retailer might need to reorder item from its supplier promptly, At that point, directing for handling or a capacity area inside the preparing center will be needed. A reverse warehouse management system may be required for this step (vender management systems) 2.7.3.3. MANUFACTURER The manufacturers will create a return authorization (RA) through of (VMS).This is regularly a manual procedure. RA could be created electronically, including a programmed verify whether the return ought to be approved. Next, the reasonable money related effect of the return could be produced. These capacities would be extremely useful in better overseeing returns. The following steps are to computerize pickup of item and a propelled dispatching in advance notice (advance shipment notification ASN) could be cut. After it is delivered, it is received. Presently, most manufacturers manually get returns. Once the material is received, a database is made for compromise. Since most manufacturers physically get material, this database is made gradually in the event that, it is made by any means. This drowsiness (snowlines) brings about moderating the compromise and the attitude of the profits. 2.7.3.4. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) STANDARDS Electronic data interchange (EDI) trade is the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to move information internal and external in an organized. PC retrievable information arranges that licenses data to be exchanged from a PC program in one area to a PC program in another area, without manual mediation. A case is the transmission of an electronic receipt from a provider's invoicing programming to a client's records receivable programming. This definition incorporates the immediate transmission of information between areas and partners transmission utilizing a mediator, for example, a correspondence arrange, and the trading of advanced stockpiling gadgets, such as attractive tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs. EDI is a standout amongst the most essential subsets of electronic business the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to encourage the data trade between two gatherings in a business exchange. The expectation of all electronic trade is to computerize business forms. A few exchanges can be totally paperless and move information starting with one PC application then onto the next PC application. By strict definition EDI falls under this kind of electronic business. Other electronic business exchanges are additionally paperless yet include manual mediation. Illustrations are Internet exchanges requiring one gathering to enter information physically. Electronic mail is another case of paperless however manual electronic trade. Now and then firms claim to do EDI when they are truly playing out a manual-to-PC exchange, for example, electronic request passage. referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic-Data-Interchange-EDI. 2.7.3.5. THE BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE IN REVERSE LOGISTICS 1. EDI was created to take care of the issues inalienable in paper based exchange handling and in different types of electronic correspondence. In tackling these issues, EDI is a device that empowers associations to reengineer data streams and business forms. Issues with the paper-based exchange framework are as follows: 2. Time delays; Postponements are created fundamentally by two components. Paper reports may take days to transport starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, manual preparing postponements are brought on by the need to key, record, recover, and look at information 3. Labor costs, in non-EDI frameworks, manual handling is required for information keying, report putting away and recovering, sorting, coordinating, accommodating, envelope stuffing, stamping, marking, and so forth. While robotized hardware can help with some of these procedures, most administrators will concur that work costs for archive preparing speaks to a critical extent of their overhead. When all is said in done, work based procedures are substantially more costly than non-work serious operations including PCs and broadcast communications 4. Errors, since data is keyed numerous circumstances and records are transported, put away, and recovered by individuals, non-EDI frameworks have a tendency to be mistake inclined Instability. This exists in two territories. To begin with, paper transportation and other manual preparing defers imply that the time the report is gotten is unverifiable. Once an exchange is sent, the sender does not know when the exchange will be gotten or when it will be handled. Second, the sender does not know whether the exchange has been gotten at all nor whether the recipient concurs with what was sent in the exchange. 5. High Inventories. In light of time deferrals and instabilities in non EDI preparing, inventories are frequently higher than would normally be appropriate. Lead times with paper handling are long. In an assembling firm, it might be for all intents and purposes difficult to accomplish an in the nick of time stock framework with the time postpones inalienable in non-EDI handling frameworks. 6. Data Access, EDI grants client access to an immense measure of itemized exchange information—in a non-EDI condition this is conceivable just with extraordinary exertion and time delay. Since EDI information is now in PC retrievable shape, it is liable to robotized handling and examination. Such data helps one retailer, for instance, screen offers of toys by model, shading, and client postal division. This empowers the retailer to react rapidly to changes in buyer taste 2.7.4 CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTERS/CENTRALIZED REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN The reverse supply chain, also called reverse logistics is usually fragmented between different actors. This leads to that no one has the overall responsibility. This then again leads to inefficient solutions and sub-optimization. But it is possible to identify the responsibility and where the initiative should be for managing the reverse flows through adapting a centralized control over the reverse supply chain. This is a system where one organization is responsible for collection, sorting and redistributing of return items. Centralist restructure of reverse supply chain Product returns Retailers/ resellers (Larsen, Schary, and Mikkola Philip: 2009) Above a model of a reverse supply chain is demonstrated. The point with this system is “that the gate-keeping activities of collection, inspecting and sorting are centralized within on organization. The same organization or another company at the up-stream levels of the supply chain may take on the physical processing.” (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola and Philip: 2009) 2.7.4.1. TYPICAL BENEFITS FROM A CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTER 1. Simplified store procedures, 2.Improved supplier relationships, 3. Better returns inventory control, 4. Improved inventory turns, 5.Reduced administrative costs, 6. Reduced store level costs, 7.Reduced shrinkage, 8. Refocus on retailer core competencies, 9.Reduced landfill, 10. Improved management information. (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola Philip: 2009). CRCs improve in-store in the following forms. 1. ACCESSIBILITY: One of the biggest advantages of having all of your products in one central location means you have easy access whenever you need it. Instead of trying to keep track of which products are where, you know, at all times, where your products are and how to access them. 2. EFFICIENT: The fact that all of your products are in one central location will make shipping your products much more efficient. Yes, sometimes your products will have to travel a little further than they would if you had multiple distribution centers. However, spreading your products throughout multiple distribution centers could mean delays in the shipping of some products over others, potentially leading to customer dissatisfaction. Multiple distribution centers also means there are multiple delivery routes, which can make the logistics of distribution even more congested. 3. REPORTING: Depending on what sort of business you’re in or what sorts of products you offer customers, you need to keep a close eye on what you have in stock. With a central distribution center, creating these types of reports becomes incredibly easy. You only have to go to one source rather than track down multiple reports from multiple distribution centers. 4. COSTS: You’ll save money in the long run since you won’t operate multiple distribution centers. You will also be able to cut down on employee costs because it does not take as much manpower to operate a single facility when compared to multiple centers. 5. CONSISTENCY: Sending returns back to a CRC brings about more reliable choices being made about item disposition. Since procedures are institutionalized (standard), mistakes are all the more effectively recognized and kept away from. The quality of returns processing generally improves as the firm moves to a centralized processing model. 6. SPACE UTILIZATION: Retail locations by and large have extremely restricted space in the store to give to returns. Normally, a retail location needs to commit however bigger space as could be expected to the offering floor for moving products only. A retailer does not have any desire to commit much space to hold non-offering returns. 7. LABOR SAVINGS: By unifying returns handling, a retailer limits the work required to finish the preparing of profits. One appropriately prepared worker at the CRC can by and large accomplish more in less time than the consolidated endeavors of a few client benefit work area representatives. 8. TRANSPORTATION COSTS: Many of the companies included in this research also found that their reverse logistics-related transportation costs decline due to consolidation. With a CRC model, a retailer or manufacturer can utilize “milk runs” to pick up returned goods. This way, a company can move more pallets and fewer boxes, increasing consolidation and thereby reducing freight costs. 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE. From the manufacturers ' perspective, the concentrated model can enhance client benefit. It can speed the compromise procedure, enhance return material approval (RMA) confirmation, and be a piece of creating critical administration data. As a result of union of profits, a producer can be more effectively wind up noticeably mindful of patterns in returns. Likewise, great reverse logistics processes can be a promoting technique to keep customers satisfy, preparing the exchange rapidly and give the client credit assembles and client faithfulness. A few firms trust that their returns system activities give them an extraordinary chance to satisfy the customers. Operating CRCs is a way of motivation from the firm to involve returns activities into the overall corporate strategic plan. It implies that somebody, for example, the general administrator of the CRC has the duty of ensuring that returns are handled properly 10. PROFIT IMPACT. Returns have a lower effect on the productivity of those organizations using outsourced brought together return focuses than those not utilizing outsourced unified return focuses. Organizations that utilized an in-house CRC found that reverse logistics management costs lessened profitability by 4.8 percent, while those organizations that utilized an third party to deal with their CRC discovered gainfulness decreased by 3.7 percent. 11. VISIBILITY OF QUALITY PROBLEMS. One of the focal points identified with working with CRC is that it winds up plainly less demanding to see quality issues as item streams in from a few retail locations. By following many return approvals, a firm can assemble an information stockroom that contains return reasons. On the off chance that a quality issue exists with an item, union of profits will highlight those quality troubles more rapidly than if returns spill in gradually from retail client benefit work areas. 2.7.4.2. SETBACKS 1. The totally brought together framework that deal with transportation expenses can increment since all items must be transported from the retail stores to the incorporated office. On the off chance that an item will be discarded, transporting it to a brought together office just to discard it expands costs, yet does not build incomes, in light of the fact that the item is as yet discarded. Be that as it may, the cost investment funds, diminished mien time, and enhanced incomes related with the execution of CRCs more than compensate for transportation costs brought about if the item is to be rejected In many cases, products that are going to be thrown away would not be processed at the retail store, anyway. 2. It is frequently hard to get mien choice consistency over a chain of stores for a few reasons. The representatives dealing with the client benefit work area may not be appropriately concerned prepared, new, or not truly worried about returns. 2.7.4.3. FORWARD AND BACKWARD An extensive number of firms trust that appropriation focuses won't function admirably in both forward and in reverse. While at first this conviction did not appear to be consistent to me, numerous conveyance focuses that would endeavor to effectively handle both forward and reverse production network streams will have much challenges. The issue might be connected more to center than to genuine ability. On the off chance that the appropriation focus administrator needs to settle on a decision between productively executing forward logistics versus, reverse logistics management the dissemination supply chain will concentrate on forward dispersion. In each circumstance, forward circulation administration is the top need of a conveyance focus that has new item stream as one of its duties. Few of the organizations trust that process duration preparing is contrarily influenced when one dispersion focus handles both forward and reverse logistics distribution. In dispersion focuses that have a predetermined number of dock entryways and dock space, item returning has a tendency to be misused and the handling of that material is frequently put off. This issue of using a dissemination focus to work both forward and in reverse is one reason that few firms are searching out for. It is troublesome for administrators to legitimize the cost of developing and staffing a huge building committed to taking care of "failures"–which is precisely how returned item is frequently seen inside the organization. A few firms concentrated under the examination can perform forward and reverse logistics operations in a similar office via precisely isolating both the stream of item and the workers. This division enables the reverse logistics management representatives to concentrate on the arrival stream and not be occupied by forward dispersion exercises. 2.7.5. ZERO RETURNS In a zero returns program, a provider tells its clients that no item will be acknowledged for return, “once ordered typically a Ghanaian adage which goes like “money paid is not refundable”. Rather, the provider will give the client a rebate off of the invoiced sum. Contingent upon the provider, the retailer either annihilates the item, or discards it in some other way. In another model being used in the PC business, the retailer gives back all items to a main issue on open return material approval (RMA). Usable item is paid for and sent to an outsider for restoration and disposition. Ineligible or unusable item is discarded in light of a predefined set of guidelines. In this model, the objective for the retailer is to enroll many producers as could reasonably be expected to take an interest, to empower incorporated getting, assessing, and installment handling. 2.7.5.1 2% TO 6% METHOD: An eminent method with zero merchandise exchanges is one that can be alluded to as the "2%/6%" method. In light of the impressive power that vast retailers have in the channel, it is hard for producers to proclaim a suitable returns stipend and stick to it. For instance, if a producer is pitching item to Kmart, and sets a six percent returns top, Kmart would consent to that top if the profits of the producer item don't surpass six percent. Truth be told, Kmart would likely be extremely cheerful if its real returns rate was two percent while it was accepting credit for six percent returns. Kmart would have the capacity to utilize the extra return top cash as a refund. In any case, if the producer sets a two percent return top and the real return rate is six percent, Kmart is not liable to agree to the producer's set return top rate. The retailer would rather demand that the producer cover the whole six percent returns. Due to the energy of the substantial retailers, most producers are not in a position to contend about the arrival top rate. This combined with the powerlessness of the producer to really control the demeanor of the item implies that, the retailer has fewer hazards than the producers from a zero returns program. A compelling zero returns programs require that both the purchaser and merchant genuinely comprehend what their real expenses are. 2.7.6. REMANUFACTURE AND REFURBISHMENT Thierry, et al. (1995) characterized five classifications of remanufacture and repair. These five classifications appeared in Table below repair, renovating, remanufacturing, cannibalization, and reusing. The initial three classes: repair, renovating, and remanufacturing, include item recondition and update. These alternatives vary as for the level of change. Repair includes minimal measure of push to overhaul the item, and remanufacture involves a lot. Cannibalization is basically the recuperation of a confined arrangement of reusable parts from utilized items (short item life cycle, because of the presentation of new item or else obsolete item). Reusing is the reuse of materials that were a piece of another item or subassembly. Remanufacturing and repairing of utilized item is on the ascent. Indeed, even NASA shuttle are being worked with remanufactured and renovated apparatuses. Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold 2.7.7. ASSET RECOVERY Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as drilling equipment, and reusable containers vehicles, bicycles, Coleman etc. 2.7.8. NEGOTIATION Bargaining making is a key portion of the reverse logistics process. In the forward stream of merchandise, costs are regularly set by brand administrators and promoting authorities. Reverse logistics frequently incorporates a haggling stage, where the estimation of returned material is consulted without valuing rules. These arrangements might be taken care of freely. Likewise, at least one of the arrangement accomplices frequently does not completely comprehend the genuine estimation of the returned materials, making open doors for specialist third parties to work on the edge. These third parties frequently utilize a portion of the most honed logisticians. This third party would demonstrate in a counseling ability to the essential members of the reverse network who are attempting to exchange responsibility for material back to the first source. Additionally, the third party can deal with the physical handling of the materials. Organizations, By and large, a similar third party does not deal with the esteem transactions and physical handling of the item for both the retailer and the upstream producer. There are exemptions to this govern, yet typically retailers and producers need distinctive third party to follow up for their sake to wipe out potential irreconcilable situation. 2.7.9. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgetary administration issues are the essential determinants in the structure of reverse logistics system and the way in which item is manned. Most firms need to enhance inner bookkeeping forms. Bookkeeping issues drive the activities of directors. In fan milk Ghana limited, in this research, bookkeeping issues drove stores manager to avoid typical return frameworks. In these cases, inner strategies and controls moved them to wasteful, wrong practices. Regularly, the cost of profits is charged against the business division. While this approach may for the most part be a sensible one, it can complicate reverse logistics processes. On the off chance that business work force are punished for returns, they will make a special effort to back off or crush the brisk acknowledgment of profits and the fast disposition of returned material. Issues identified with charge backs and main concern obligation regarding returns must be a key thought when building up a decent reverse logistics management framework. Dealing with what a provider is to be paid, when arrangements and advancements are figured in, can be a test. Be that as it may, returns are regularly the main issue in accommodating records receivables. Due to these difficulties, third parties have begun to specialize in handling accounting and reconciliation issues. 2.7.10. OUTSOURCING REVERSE LOGISTICS In general, outsourcing can be described as the transfer of activities that were previously conducted in-house, to a third party. Ellram and Billington (2001) see outsourcing primarily as: The transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party’. A wider definition is reported by NEVI (2000): Outsourcing means that the company divests itself of the resources to fulfil a particular activity to another company to focus more effectively on its own competence. The difference with subcontracting is the divestment of assets, infrastructure, people and competencies. Many organizations are outsourcing most or the greater part of their supply chain operations. Some of these organizations are extending their outsourcing to reverse logistics operations. These organizations are utilizing their reverse logistics outsource provider as a benchmark to help figure out what and how reverse activities ought to be performed, and how much those activities ought to cost. Regularly, these outsource providers perform reverse activities well, and their clients find that utilizing these administration firms lessen the regulatory bother of doing it without anyone's help. These outsource providers have progressed toward becoming masters in dealing with the reverse flow, and performing key value-added services, such as remanufacturing and renovating. Examples; coca cola bottling and Guinness Ghana limited contracting (outsourcing) it assets returns or (recovery), such as crates, bottles sorting and transportation to DHL and others. 2.8. USING REVERSE LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction happens when the organizations meet or outperform customer wants. Frankly, in light of current conditions, customers regularly contemplate having their perception, organization (benefit procedures) and support essentials met, and significantly less about how their suppliers do it. What customers genuinely need is to have their voices heard - and from that point forward, have their suppliers/providers truly make a move (i.e., they have to get happens). Most companies utilize their supply chain and reverse logistics management tool as market differentiators. The reason for existing is to keep customers so content with their product and activities, sometimes as of late, in the midst of, and taking after the main transport, that they remain devoted to their suppliers, repurchasing their items or possibly benefits again, and yet again, and yet again. Be that as it may, in the last mentioned, the assessment depends on the client's aggregate pre-and post-buy involvement with the organization's items, administrations and support after some time (i.e., this "signify customer understanding"). Firms that incorporate new advancements, for instance: UPC scanner labels, RFIDs, etc. Into their return management are all things considered more inclined to develop and keep up strong customer relation over the long time in the manner of their development enhanced limits. 2.8.1 The principal attributes that eventually separate one Logistics Company (and its reverse logistic process) from another may be classified basically as follows. 1. Dexterous/ Agile Adaptability, or how well (and how rapidly) the organization can react to changes in its client or showcase requests and, thus, build up the new logistics procedures, items and administrations required to meet (and surpass) the channel members. 2. Inventory Management, The capacity to oversee both the cost and the accessibility of inventories adequately to the need and wants of the members’ satisfactions 3. Cycle Times, the time it takes the company to satisfy members and related exercises, both on the inbound and return management sides; 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the utilization of the most proper, auspicious and precise measurements for measuring execution (and consumer loyalty) on a progressing premise and. 3. Market Position and Presence, The limit of the relationship to develop, keep up and propel its coordination (reverse management) capacities and qualities both to its present customers and to the business focus with everything taken into account. For instance, if a firm does not have the most ideal reverse logistics set up, either in light of the way that they are not the best methodology, or they don't exist inside the firm by any extend of the creative ability, then it will be basically unequipped for giving the administration and reinforce its customers require. Moreover, paying little notice to how reasonable and all around arranged the systems may be, if they don't move the customers' products out and back quickly enough, shopper dependability will toward the day's end raise its immense head. Finally, if the firm can't evaluate either its own specific pivot supply operations or its customers' appraisals of its execution, then it will never know decisively where it stays in the minds of its customers or how to upgrade its operations to meet customer wants. 2.8.1. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONNECTION; Statistical survey has demonstrated that clients trust the accompanying ascribes to be of the best significance for both forward and reverse logistics: 1. Elimination of slow or lost shipments 2.Elimination of shipment discrepancies 3.Improved profit margins through the use of optimization tools 4. Reduction of inventory carrying costs for the customer 5.Support for its customers' efforts to reduce inventory investments, 6.Significantly reduced product/part returns, 7.Improved customer service and satisfaction through: ? Improved delivery reliability ? Improved efficiencies in customers' shipping/receiving operations ? One version of the "truth" for dispute resolution 2.8.2. Regardless, for there is truly be a "bond," or "relationship," between the reverse logistics organizations provider and its customers, there must in like manner be the going with shared characteristics 1. Mutually high expectations for the success of the partnership 2. Mutual loyalty 3. Framework/capability for technical data/information exchange (e.g., EDI) 4. Willingness to share risks/provide assistance in critical situations 5. Willingness to negotiate/mediate differences of opinion/interpretation 6. Use of joint provider/user task forces/teams 7. Two-way, frequent communications and feedback channels 8. Joint performance monitoring and tracking (i.e., against pre-set goals) 2.9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RL PRACTICES AND PROFITABILITY OF THE COMPANY Every firm is most worried with its profitability; a standout amongst the most every now and again utilized instruments of money related proportion investigation is benefit proportions which are utilized to decide the organization's main concern and its arrival to its speculators (Jensen and Webster, 2009). Profitability measures are imperative to organization directors and proprietors particularly in deciding the monetary execution of a firm and basic leadership. Productivity proportions demonstrate an organizations general effectiveness and execution. Productivity proportions can be separated into two sorts: edges and returns. Proportions that show edge speak to the organizations capacity to make an interpretation of offers in cedis into benefits at different phases of estimation. Proportions that show returns speak to the company's capacity to gauge the general productivity of the firm in creating returns for its shareholders (Lim and Lovell, 2009). Reverse logistics process profoundly adds to benefit of firms; already most firms particularly producing firms lost a considerable measure of profit. Today, return management is seen by most firms as a method for recouping lost benefits. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004), profitability investigation is a vital method for surveying management activities and proposed changes to a company's strategic frameworks (Richey, Genchev and Daugherty, 2005). Profitability studies goes past aggregate cost assessment by joining the income effect of calculated exercises. For instance, an enhanced level of administration may achieve expanded income as clients react to larger amounts of returns. Such changes must be incorporated with calculated framework activities. Moreover, the effect of advantages, for example, stock levels, debt claims and settled calculated resources ought to be joined into an exhaustive productivity investigation approach (Mueller, 1990). Basic return management capacities can cost organizations millions in lost benefits because of harmed client connections and outer liabilities that could enormously affect their business. Successfully oversaw, notwithstanding, return management activities can empower associations to discover shrouded benefits, enhance consumer loyalty and limit liabilities. Fleischmann and Kuik (2003), is that the normal producer will spend9% to 15% of aggregate income on returns, as indicated by a 2010 Aberdeen Group think about. They are frequently ignorant of the effect returns administration can have on their clients, their assets or their primary concern. Actually, enhancing reverse activities operations can help organization improve income up to 5% of aggregate deals (Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro, 2004). Reverse logistic practices assume a vital part of recovering the estimation of returned items or legitimately discarding them. An open door with this request of greatness has affected many organizations to push the limits of incorporated Reverse logistic practices to discover better approaches to streamline operations, drive benefits, and enjoyment clients. On top of that, some ground breaking organizations have made new lines of income through their aptitude in giving incorporated Reverse logistic benefits that sliced through the boundaries (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). Fawcett et al. (1995) contend that Reverse logistic practices can incorporate picking up input to make upgrades and to enhance the comprehension of genuine purposes behind item give back, this assume an imperative part in the development of an association prompting money related, natural and societal increases. 2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK From the basis of this study, the independent variables affect the dependent variable, which is profitability of manufacturing firms (industry) in Ghana. To this extent therefore, increase in profitability in manufacturing firms in Ghana, depends on how effective the manufacturing firms implement reverse logistics practices. The conceptual model indicated below will be used to explain the reverse logistics practices and how they will be used to lead to an increase in profitability of fan milk Ghana limited. DRIVERS: PROCESSES: ACTIVITIES: ELEMENTS: RESULTS: 2.11. CONTRIBUTIONS ON REVERSE LOGISTICS By reviewing the reverse logistics literature, I found some topics that are commonly studied by researchers which are worth knowing in order to get a general idea of what has been studied and what hasn’t. I will do a brief review of these research topics in this section. Early reverse logistics researchers seem to be more focus on the large-scale view of reverse logistics; most of their work went into the whole process of reverse flow. For example, (Kim et. al., 2007) studied on BOM (bill-of-material) restructuring and the development of bills of material to serve to challenges of remanufacturing. His study suggested that the forecasting of sales has to be fine-tuned to reflect the uncertainty and variety of core returns for both salvaged and new parts. Traditionally, manufacturers did not feel responsible for their products after they were sold to the consumers. The greater part of utilized items were dumped or burned with significant harm to the earth. Today, consumers and authorities experts anticipate that, producers will diminish the waste created by their items. Therefore, waste management has gotten expanding consideration. Recently, attention has been moving towards recovery, because of the high costs and environmental burdens of disposal. Firms turn out to be increasingly in charge of gathering, destroying and updating of utilized items and bundling materials. (RevLog, 1998), Webb (1994) discussed the “green movement”, he indicated that more environmental concerns are influencing reverse logistics activities, e.g. packaging regulation, customer preferences, these environmental issues are becoming big concerns about reverse logistics. Some literature addressed the focus on reverse logistics concerning product handling, e.g. transportation, inventory management, and distribution. White (1994) described importance of reverse logistics for material handling; material handling contains moving, storing, protecting and controlling materials. He indicated that, in the material handling system, protection is the first priority. Dawe (1995) viewed return management as the best opportunity to differentiate customer service and create a competitive advantage for a firm. In order to take the opportunity, Dawe (1995) suggested that the most needed reengineering factors are return process and warehousing operations. Fuller & Allen (1996) asserts that, waste is an unavoidable by-product of resource-conversion processes in the economic system and materials are recycled as part of a resource program that supports sustainable development in efforts to manage waste. The use of information on systematic way will help reverse channel networks for recyclable materials, and the lobbying efforts to support the passage of a recycling bill. Some researcher put reverse logistics practice into quantitative models. For instance, Clegg, Williams, & Uzsoy (1995) presented a linear programming model to investigate the effects of recycling and remanufacturing on companies? operations. One of the more interesting and significant trends in supply chain management is the recognition of the strategic importance of reverse logistics operations. (Retzlaf and others, 1997) These reverse logistics operations support a variety of activities ranging from what is termed “green logistics,” i.e., “efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the supply chain” to activities that encompass product returns, repairs, and refurbishment. (Daugherty and others, 2001) Firms can use this model to analyze the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing operations (Clegg et al, 1995). Aside for the above example, there are many other quantitative models contributed by various researchers (Fleischmann et al., 1997; Guide Jr, Srivastava, & Spencer, 1996; Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). These models can be used to improve numerous dimensions of reverse logistics practices, such as, extending product life cycles, protecting product failures, etc... Another commonly studied topic of logistics research is the application of reverse logistics. Kroon &Vrijens (1995) focus their attention on the waste avoidance, they asserted that “a change in attitude towards the environment is an absolute necessity”, and they proposed a whole process of “collection, recycling and reuse of products and materials” (Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). Autry et al. (2001) looked at the catalog retailing industry, investigating how reverse logistics performance and satisfaction with reverse logistics service are influenced by factors such as firm size, sales volume, and internal/external assignment of disposition. They came up with practical results suggesting that “neither performance nor satisfaction was significantly influenced by location of responsibility for disposition” (Autry et al., 2001). A recent study conducted by Breen (2006) analyzed the customer compliance in reverse logistics practices. This cross-industry study reported that without customer compliance, efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be seriously undermined; the losses are reported up to 144 million pounds. These literatures cover a wide range of topics, but there are some issues left out due to the time and financial constraints and would have been useful if addressed. To be more specific, these research mostly focus on industrial level issues, majority of articles are short and lack the depth to demonstrate the level of integration necessary to implement reverse logistics to functional areas such as consumer market. Marketing research on the other hand, frequently focuses on the customer, tend to neglect operational, supply chain issues (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). This study is conducted in hope to redress these shortcomings by linking the reverse logistics and marketing issue in the context of end-customer. Source: Mohammed shaik 2.12. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND KNOWLEDGE GAP REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE. There are no exact writing incorporates the requirement for reverse logistics management practices and how it impacts benefit of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. No Previous reviews lay more concrete or concentrate on reverse logistics management and execution; the reviews did not address issues of reverse logistics management practices and gainfulness of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. The researcher therefore thinks that it’s important to address this issue by assessing reverse logistics management practices utilized by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana and the relationship between reverse logistics management practices, productivity (profitability) and environmental issues of by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana. Reverse logistics management practices is one of the courses in which beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana can use to build their benefit through making most extreme utilization of their waste items and materials to deliver esteem included merchandise and enterprises at a lessened cost which consequently will prompt to enhanced consumer satisfaction and hence loyalty, increase market share and revenue and ultimately profitability of the firms. Recent studies show that, there is no specific Performance variable that adds to return management. There is no definite framework of return management performance measurement. There are no studies on evaluation as to how the return management organizations can implement return management successfully. Strategy, process, capabilities and perspectives, and their sub criteria attributes are very important strategic issues to the top management; there is no evidence about feather research on that, less to talk about its importance on the return management in supply chain management CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is to provide a review of the literature relevant to the research goals of this thesis. It places a particular emphasis on works concerned with reverse logistics flow of products and services in manufacturing sector. It continues with the contributions other researchers made on reverse logistics. This is followed by discussions of reverse logistics drivers, processes and activities and elements in a manufacturing firm. In its final parts it discusses the role of reverse logistics on customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2.1. DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS 2.1.1 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management is essentially an integrative process that seeks to optimize the flows of materials and supplies through the organization and its operations to the customer. It is essentially a planning process and an information-based activity. Requirements from the marketplace are translated into production requirements and then into materials requirements through this planning process. It is now being recognized that, for the real benefits of the logistics concept to be realized, there is a need to extend the logic of logistics upstream to suppliers and downstream to final customers. This is the concept of supply chain management. Global logistics: (new directions in supply chain management)/ [edited by] Donald waters. — 6th edition. Logistics is characterized by the board of organizations administration as the procedure of arranging, executing, and controlling the proficient, financially savvy stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed products and related data from the purpose of inception to the point of utilization with the end goal of adjusting to client prerequisites. Logistics is for the most part the nitty gritty association and execution of an unpredictable operation in a general negotiating prudence, Logistics is the administration of the stream of things between the purpose of root and the purpose of utilization with a specific end goal to meet necessities of clients or organizations. The assets overseen in coordinations (Logistics) can incorporate physical things, for example, nourishment, materials, creatures, hardware, and fluids; and in addition dynamic things, for example, time and data. The coordinations of physical things generally includes the reconciliation of data stream, material dealing with, generation, bundling, stock, transportation, warehousing, returns and frequently security. In military science, coordinations is worried about keeping up armed force supply lines while upsetting those of the adversary, since an outfitted compel without assets and transportation is exposed. Military coordinations was at that point rehearsed in the antiquated world and as current military have a huge requirement for coordinations arrangements, propelled usage have been created. In military coordinations, coordinations officers oversee how and when to move assets to the spots they are required 2.1.2 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management is entire network of entities, internal and external members with the common interest of satisfying the final consumer. These members include supply of raw material, manufacturers who convert raw material into product, warehouse/ stores that stores the product transportation that convey the product to the distributor, retailer, as they intern transport the product to the final consumer. Supply chain underlie esteem chain in line of the fact that, without them, no producer can give consumers what they need, when and where they need it at the value they need it. Manufacturers compete with each other through their supply chains, and no level of change at the producers end can compensate for the insignificancies in any inventory network which limit the producer capacity to satisfaction. (Business dictionary) August 6, 2015 by Surbhi S 2.1.3 CONTRASTS BETWEEN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN 1. Logistics management is centered more around interior (expansive) physical development of items and materials, while SCM incorporates Logistics management notwithstanding having a general perspective of materials, data, budgetary and operational procedures. SCM concentrates on both interior and outside sources and plans for the ideal results. 2. Description; Logistics is the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling strategies for the proficient and powerful transportation and capacity of merchandise, including administrations and related data, yet store network from the purpose of root to the point of utilization. Store network management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, data, and funds as they move in a procedure from supplier to producer to distributer to retailer to the final consumer. 3. Relationship with different divisions, Logistics does not specifically takes an interest in other office or portions, (SCM) May take an interest in activities such as, research and advertising that may directly affect the store network 4. The primary point of Logistics is full consumer loyalty. Then again, the primary point behind Supply Chain Management is competitive edge. 5. Logistics is just a movement of Supply Chain Management. 6. (L) Part of Supply Chain Management, (SC) Part of Management of the Company Source: Surbhi S 2.1.4. CONCLUSION Logistics is an extremely old term, ideal from the earliest starting point used as a piece of the military, for the upkeep, stockpiling and transportation of outfitted drive individuals and items. Nowadays, this term is used as a piece of various circles, not especially in the military after the progression of Supply Chain Management. It has moreover been said that SCM is an alternative over Logistics Management and what's more SCM contains Logistics. Both are indivisible. Consequently they don't invalidate however supplement each other. SCM makes Logistics be in contact with the transportation, stockpiling and movement gathering. Distinction amongst logistics and supply chain management 2.1.5. REVERSE LOGISTICS reverse logistics is defined by The Council of Logistics Management as ``The way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, financially savvy stream of raw materials, in-progress stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of beginning with the end goal of recovering worth or appropriate transfer/ disposal``. Return Logistics is a part of logistics. Generally when logistics is mentioned just a single way is thought of. That is the point at which the merchandise leaves the organization and is transported to the client. Reverse Logistics handles issues, for example, remanufacturing, renovating, reusing or transfer to utilize assets adequately. Dowlatshahi (2000,) Reverse logistics is a procedure in which a producer deliberately acknowledges vitally sent items or parts from the point for utilization for conceivable reusing, remanufacturing or /disposal transfer." Another definition by Hawks (2006) is that reverse logistics is "the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, practical stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of starting point with the end goal of recovering worth or legitimate transfer or disposal." She at that point keeps on clarifying it as reverse logistics is the way toward moving products from their final destination with the end goal of catching wealth, or appropriate transfer/disposal. A third meaning of invert coordinations by Larsen, Schary Mikkola and Philip (2007) is that reverse logistics envelops a wide scope of exercises inside, and outside of, logistics including: item returns, source decrease, reusing, material conveyance, reuse of material, squander disposal/ transfer and revamping, repair and remanufacturing. 2.2. REVERSE FLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE Overseeing reverse logistics is presently an essential component of supply chain management and, sometimes, a benefit creating capacity. Reverse logistics is turning into an essential part of supply chain management. Many organizations that, already, did not give much time, vitality or attention to the administration and comprehension of reverse have started to focus. Firms have started to benchmark return operations with best in-class administrators. Industries that spend significant time in returns have seen interest for their administrations extraordinarily expanded. Developing enthusiasm for natural concern around the world, constrained organizations to take part in reverse management, for example, re-utilization of items and materials and reusing. For all intents and purposes, the vast majority of the organizations manage returns of some nature on account of issues, for example, promoting returns, harm or quality issues, overloads, renovating or remanufacturing. Handling returns present a great challenge for companies, while in many cases becomes a necessity for keeping customers satisfaction to a certain level. Reverse logistics operations in a supply chain may be considered as an introduction to innovative services of a company's portfolio. They may importantly affect an association's key execution as far as market viability, and additionally, inward cost effectiveness. Through reverse logistics management advancement, it might be conceivable to extend income through market development because of record customization, benefit enlargement and enhanced consumer loyalty. Reverse management is turning into a territory of upper hand. For example, the accompanying; 1. Positive normal impact: institutions acts, commitment laws," oblige creators to develop an approach for the social occasion and reuse of things toward the complete of their life cycle 2. Competitiveness progressions, proficient treatment of returns leads to reduced costs, increased profits and improved customer service. 3. Regaining esteem: effective reverse logistics can catch values from reusing items or parts or recycling materials 4. Financial matters (immediate and backhanded), return management activities can lead to addition to organizations through lesser utilization of raw materials, including value addition of product recovery processes, decrease in costs of disposal, and so forth. The company likewise gets engaged with return management processes because of competition in the marketing, rivalry, as well as vital issues (strategic), which may bring indirect benefits. A conservative estimate is that reverse logistics is a significant portion of some major companies and the economies as a whole, such as the U.S, China, England as well as middle income economies such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya etc. Logistics costs were estimated to account for approximately 8.5% of the U.S economy in 2013. However, the exact amount of reverse logistics activity is difficult to determine because most companies do not carefully track reverse logistics costs. For the firms studied in this research, reverse logistics accounted, on average, for approximately 4.25% of total logistics costs. Applying this mean percentage to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), reverse logistics costs are estimated to be approximately one half of a percent of the total U.S. GDP. (”Delaney estimates that logistics costs accounted for $921 billion in 1999”). Based on the Delaney respondent sample, is that reverse logistics costs amounted to approximately $39.1425 billion in 1999. The size, scope, and impact of reverse logistics vary by industry and channel position as well as the type of distribution channel. It is clear, however that, the overall amount of reverse logistics activity in the economy is large and still growing. Within specific industries, reverse logistics activities can be critical for the firm. Generally, when the value of the product is large, or the return rate is great, much more effort has to be spent on improving return processes. In 1998, the remanufactured auto parts market was estimated by the Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA) at $36 billion. Rebuilding and remanufacturing conserve a considerable amount of resources. As indicated by the APRA, around half of a car starter is recuperated in the reconstructing procedure. This may bring about sparing a few million gallons of unrefined petroleum, and also steel and different metals. The APRA gauges that crude materials spared by remanufacturing worldwide would fill 155,000 railroad autos yearly, a travel more than 1,100 miles in length. 2.3 DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS Past reviews recommended that reverse management can be influenced by different elements inside and outside an organization. Internal considerations involved senior management commitment, support and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities (Routroy, 2009), Outside elements incorporate weights from government (regulatory bodies), customers, suppliers and competitors (Carter and Ellram, 1998; Wu and Cheng, 2006), Broad audit of the accessible writing uncovers four essential drivers for reverse logistics: regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility and expected business benefits. For example, Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) and Daher et al. (2006) contended that the primary reasons that make firms endeavor to adopt reverse logistics are: 1. Environmental enactment, which force organizations to reclaim their flawed items, waste or discharges 2. Economic benefits of using returned products in the production process such as recapture of value and recovery of assets 3. Growing public environmental laws and awareness 2.3.1.0 EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS In the Ghanaian context, there are no previous studies found investigating the drivers for reverse logistics. However, related studies tend to emphasis the importance of the four drivers identified earlier. For instance, Raman and Peir (2006) conducted interviews with 10 SMEs in Malaysia and found that the main drivers for corporate social responsibility activities (waste recycling, paperless technology and use of biodegradable containers) are: professional code of conduct and ethics, customer pressures (for firms that are suppliers to venders/ MNCs), expected financial returns (especially from recycling), personal values of the owner and reputation. The following subsections illustrate each of the stipulated drivers for reverse logistics (regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility, expected business benefits and the internal drivers) and their roles in motivating firms to adopt reverse logistics initiatives. 2.3.1.1 REGULATIONS Business organizations are expected to adopt green purchasing in response to environmental regulations set by various regulatory institutions such as government bodies inside the country, regulations in other countries (mainly import and export companies),such as the fan milk coca cola and Guinness etc. in the industry in Ghana in addition to regulations set by the parent companies. Such regulations take the form of formal rules, laws, sanctions and incentives (Scott, 1995). Firms try to avoid potential costs, uncertainty and legal liabilities inherent in existing and anticipated regulations (Clemens and Douglas, 2006). Moreover, regulatory institutions may provide inducements for organizations to behave in a certain way. Inducement mechanisms include providing incentives to organizations for conforming to the demands of the agency that offers the inducement as well as punishment to offenders (Grewal and Dharwadkar, 2002). Currently, there are more strict legislations regulations in many countries, especially in Europe, that require business organizations to take responsibility for their products from production up to the final disposal which strengths producers to assume liability for their items toward the finish of their product life, and RoSH, which requires safe disposal or recycling of consumed products. Previous studies found that firms adopt reverse logistics initiatives in response to these regulations (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Ravi et al., 2005; Murphy and Poist, 2003; Blumberg, 1999; Carter and Ellram, 1998). In Ghana, there are no government regulations that directly require business organizations to undertake reverse logistics activities. Example is Automakers worldwide are ramping up the industry's biggest-ever recall after parts supplier Takata, under pressure from U.S. authorities, agreed earlier last year to declare more of its air bags as defective in the United States and other countries. fortune Toyota -recall-takata airbag cars 2.3.1.2 CUSTOMER PRESSURES Customers represent the major financial stakeholders that buy products and services of organizations. As such, customers can exert considerable pressures and may communicate goals of sustainability or environmental performance on these organizations. Past studies found that client weight is one of the significant drivers for reverse supply chain management. For example, Alvarez-Gil et al. (2007) found that clients have huge impact on final decision on reverse supply chain programmes in an organization. Similarly, Carter and Ellram (1998) emphasized the importance of pressures from consumers and intermediate customers such as retailers, in affecting reverse logistics activities. 2.3.1.3 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES The enthusiasm for reverse supply chain is relied upon to radiate not just from the outer condition (regulations, profit and customers) but additionally from the inside awareness of other's expectations of a firm towards the general public in which it exists. For SRM, such affectability is escalated by the continually expanding natural issues, for example, a worldwide temperature alteration and contamination. Such problems are expected to raise the awareness of business firms to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. The ordinary supply chains are based on a linear production paradigm, which relies on constant input of virgin natural resources and unlimited environmental capacity for assimilation of wastes (Geyer and Jackson, 2004).Therefore, through reverse logistics, a firm can be more socially responsible by considering minimizing its use of virgin materials and reducing the level of waste. Drumwright (1994), Murphy and Poist (2003) and Ravi et al. (2005) discovered that, social responsibility has significant impact on green supply chain initiatives (green purchasing and Social responsibility), Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse with more than 1,100 victims as a reasons of substandard materials used as well as the persistent flooding in Accra and resent fire outbreak at circle have led to widespread discussions about corporate social responsibility across global reverse supply chains. 2.3.1.4 EXPECTED BUSINESS BENEFITS Revenue (profit) and financial returns are the most vital objectives of business organizations. In this sense, every decision is evaluated based on cost–benefit criteria. Environmental initiatives are expected to come along with this general rule, i.e., a firm needs to expect business benefits from green initiatives before it engages in these initiatives. Expected business benefits demonstrate that organizations adopt reverse logistics activities, for example, reusing and reusing of items and materials, in foresight of the way that these activities can possibly enhance gainfulness of these organizations through cost minimization and expanded incomes (Stock et al., 2002). Indeed, even without prompt benefit, adopt reverse logistics activities might be useful to create potential immaterial advantages, for example, change of corporate picture (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Toffel, 2004). Past reviews found that normal business benefits effectively affect reverse logistics activities. (Blumberg, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005) Review about US`s economy shows that expected benefits, such as cost savings, marketing opportunities and financial returns from resale of return products, represent important drivers for green initiatives. For instance, Anbumozhi and Kanda (2005,) argued that “companies in Asia need to see business value to justify the cost associated with compliance to a formal environmental standard” Zulkifli and Amran (2006,) argued that, “companies in Malaysia follow corporate social responsibility practices if they can get something in return.” 2.3.2.0. INTERNAL FACTORS The Internal factors include top management commitment and support, and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities. 2.4.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES As the former discourse shows, there are numerous exercises that could fall under the heading of reverse logistics, as defined already. Of all, the reverse logistics obligations inside an organization, which exercises qualify as reverse logistics? 2.4.1.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES An autonomous reverse logistics process begins with the end client choice that the item has achieved the finish of its life, harms or defective and should be discarding, repair or replicate the materials (Blumberg, 2005). These processes may include asset recovery and recycling management, field and technical support, parts planning, returns and repair management and service parts logistics (Biederman, 2006). In general, return process activities can be grouped into three stages, namely (1) product collection and transportation, (2) inspection, separation and sorting, and (3) recovery and disposition also known as the reverse logistics operations. 2.4.1.1 PRODUCT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION Typical reverse logistics activities would be the processes a company uses to collect used, damaged, unwanted, or outdated products, as well as packaging and shipping materials from the end-user or the reseller. Once the item has been received by the company, the firm has other disposal options from which to choose. When a product is nearing its expiring date or damage, customers never put their attention on it rather discard it or returned to the company for refund. So collection is the base of the reverse logistic and analyzing it`s transportation network design of supply chain is initiated.’ the blend of various system framework is key to have the capacity to coordinate well among the different individuals from the store network of the organizations: provider, clients, Distribution Center, Cross-docking and last mile approach. The principle preferred standpoint of this system is decreasing cost, time and enhancing the responsiveness. And furthermore this is the ideal system for gathering item reversely. 2.4.1.2 INSPECTION, SEPARATION AND SORTING Returned products need to be classified according to quality and composition in order to determine the route in the reverse chain (Le Blanc, 2006 PWC, 2008). The inspection, separation and sorting stage occurs at the collection point where the products are inspected and sorted on the basis of their quality (Ji, 2008; Wang et al., 2010) and then separated, which entails splitting the flow of used products according to their disposal options (Yimsiri, 2009). This stage thus denotes all operations determining whether a given product is reusable and in what way (Yimsiri, 2009), Inspection, separation and sorting may encompass testing, disassembly, shredding and storage (Wang et al., 2010; Yimsiri, 2009). After this stage, the organization must determine the reuse manner of the product and classify it (Ji, 2008) in order to move to the next stages of reprocessing, recovery and disposition. 2.4.1.3 RECOVERY AND DISPOSITION Recovery is the process of regain or discovering value from the returned product, components and materials (Le Blanc, 2006). Product disposition refers to the different ways organizations attempt to recover the costs of products that are being returned (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition involves putting the product back into inventory or temporary storage, repackaging, repair, refurbishing or remanufacturing (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition thus refers to the determination of ultimate outcome for the product (Genchev et al., 2010). Ultimately, “final disposition” refers to the exit route returned products finally take (Bernon et al., 2011). At the end of these processes, numerous disposition options are available to organizations. These reverse logistics disposition options form part of the activities and processes in reverse logistics. 2.5.0. TYPES/RATIONALE FOR RETURENS Understanding why returns occur helps identify opportunities for improving supply chain processes and decision-making.There are many types of returns that need to be managed, each of which poses unique challenges. Based on The Global Supply Chain forum, we group returns into five categories: consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, product recalls and environmental returns. 1. Consumer Returns: consumer returns product defects are generally the largest category of returns. Many companies have liberal returns policies that make it easy for consumers to return products. This is based on the belief that consumers will continue to purchase from a retailer with liberal returns policies which increase the retailer’s revenue. Main examples include: Defective returns: At the consumer or end-customer level, defective product comes back after purchase and some level of use. Such returns could indicate quality problems that need to be resolved in manufacturing or distribution. 2. No fault found’ returns: But many times firms find no defects upon inspection of returned products. These no fault found returns may be indicative of customers not understanding how to use the product appropriately, not being able to properly install the product, or simply finding that the product was not what they were expecting. These returns signal the need to re-engineer the product or communicate more effectively to customers about what to expect and how to use/install the product. Understanding the reasons for defective returns and no fault found returns requires the involvement of a cross-functional team that might include product design, engineering, packaging, manufacturing, distribution and marketing. The goal is to identify why these types of returns are happening and work to reduce their volume. 1. Marketing Returns: marketing returns consist of products returned from a position forward in the supply chain. At the retail or intermediary level, returns often come back due to slow-moving stock, quality issues, end-of-season inventory adjustments, or as a means to release capital so customers can buy more from the company. Other examples of marketing returns include: a. Close-cut returns, which are first quality products that the retailer or distributor has decided to no longer carry b. job-outs, where seasonal merchandise is returned after the season’s end c. Surplus goods un- purchase As retailer power in the channel continues to grow, manufacturers are being asked to bear an increased responsibility for taking back unwanted retail-level inventory. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as “fresh” product can command a higher margin than old product, and can be more competitive in the battle for consumer cedis. On the other hand, manufacturers get stuck with old inventory. Such product may have diminished market value, thus making profitable sales to other customers increasingly doubtful. The key to managing these returns is to try to avoid them. That doesn’t mean playing hardball with customers by simply refusing returns; rather, it means better matching demand and supply in the first place. 2. Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned in order to be reuse. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as tricycles ice containers also known as coreman equipment, and reusable containers. 3. Product Recalls: product recalls are a form of return that are usually initiated because of a safety or quality issue. Recalls can be voluntary or mandated by a government agency. They require more up-front planning than most other return types, and this planning is central to managing them effectively. Oct 26, 2016 Toyota Motor (tm, -0.32%) on Wednesday said it was recalling about 5.8 million cars at home and abroad over potentially faulty air bag inflators made by Takata 4. Environmental Returns: environment returns include the disposal of hazardous materials or abiding by environmental regulations. Environmental returns are different from other types of returns because they might include regulatory compliance that limits the set of options. Additionally, there are often stringent documentation and audit requirements 2.6.0 REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES The activities and alternatives in reverse logistics are similar and in a few occasions seen as the same. These activities and choices incorporate the accompanying: come back to the supplier, reuse, exchange, redistribution, rescue, repair, recondition, revamp, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal which may include either incineration or landfill. Each of these choices will now be depicted in further detail 2.6.1. RETURN TO THE SELLER: A product for which a customer wants a refund due to failure to meet the expectation of the customer, below the standard of performance. In this option, the organizations can return the product to the supplier for a full refund (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Returns to the seller can also be done when there was an incentive to order larger quantities than normal and if this excess product cannot be sold, and the buyer would be allowed to return these additional units 2.6.2 REUSE: Reuse essentially implies that the item can be utilized again for a reason like the one for which it was outlined or reused for another reasons (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reuse likewise includes repairing, revamping, washing or recouping utilized items. Reprocessed material is then used to deliver new items or to make results of lesser or esteem (Sarkis et al., 2010). There are a few alternatives in the reuse movement in reverse logistics in food and beverage industry in Ghana. 2.6.3. RESELL: In this alternative the item is sold once more. The organization has numerous choices as far as exchanging. Organization can either offer the items in general or in a crushed frame (Hugo et al., 2004). For example, they can sell the item to who would use it for occasional celebrations like birth date parties Christmas scrap merchants etc. where the costs may rely upon the state of item, the organization can offer items that are of less quality to a rescue organization that will regularly trade these items to outside business sectors (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). 2.6.4. REDISTRIBUTION: Redistribution means directing reusable items to a new market, or moving the item to potential new users (Krikke, 2009b; Yimsiri, 2009). In addition, redistribution can also take place where the organization plans to sell the recycled product, but it is essential for the organization to determine whether or not there is a market for the recycled products (Roy, 2003). 2.6.5. SALVAGE/ SCRAPE: Salvage is firmly identified with redistribution where an item is sold to an agent or some low-income client (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Nonetheless, rescue items have been utilized or damage, and can at no time in the future be sold as new. In salvage, items lose value in respect to the measure of utilization and the most troublesome piece of overseeing salvage is deciding its value. Any profitable materials that can be recovered will be salvage before the rest to the landfill 2.6.6. REPAIR/RECONDITION: According to Bhamra and Hon (2004) Repair is simply the “correction of specified faults of a product”. Repair/repackage relates to a moderate magnitude of corrections or repackaging which allows the product to be reused (Ji, 2008). Bhamra and Hon (2004) clarify reconditioning as the "means of giving back a utilized item to a tasteful working molding that might be mediocre compared to the first product". 2.6.7. REFURBISH: Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold. 2.6.8. RENOVATION (also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life. 2.6.9. REMANUFACTURING: is the reproduction of an item to specifications of the original manufactured item using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. Remanufacturing is a form of a product recovery process that differs from other recovery processes in its completeness: a remanufactured item should match the same customer expectation as the previous one. 2.6.10. RECYCLING: is the “process of converting the return or used products, components, and/or materials from the field, disassemble, separating them into categories of like materials, and processing into new form of products, components, and or materials” (Beamon, 1999). 2.6.11. DONATION: Sometimes organizations decide to give the returned products to charity organizations without receiving any compensation for these products. As a rule, organizations make use of this option because they pride themselves on being good corporate citizens and feel that it is important to support charities (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 2001). 2.6.12. DISPOSAL: Disposal is required for items that can't be reused for specialized or cost reasons. This would apply, say, to items rejected at the division level inferable from unreasonable repair prerequisites additionally to items without palatable market potential, say, attributable to out of date quality. The disposal done through the following two methods 2.6.12.1. INCINERATION. Is the “destruction of product that is harmful to human and other living things as well as the other products of the company through an electronic mean. 2.6.12.2. LANDFILLS the final disposal of solid waste on land (Enviro-Glossary) this involves controlled environments for the burying of waste (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Figure 2.1 illustrates the reverse logistics process and activities based on the above discussions Source: Mohammed shaik 2.7. RETURNS MANAGEMENT/ REVERSE LOGISTICS ELEMENTS, CONSTITUENT OR PRINCIPLES Returns management is that part of supply chain management that includes returns, reverse logistics, gatekeeping, and avoidance. This definition includes activities that are critical to supply chain management such as avoidance and gatekeeping. The management of the stream of materials is the concentration of this Chapter. As it will turn out to be clear, the different modalities for taking care of profits used by the exploration respondents can either positively or adversely affect an organization's main concern. What takes after is a definite examination of those elements characterized by the exploration group as key reverse logistics management components. 2.7.1. GATEKEEPING/ AVOIDANCE. This means making decisions to limit the number of items that are allowed into the reverse flow. Successful gatekeeping allows management to control and reduce returns without damaging customer service. Gatekeeping eliminates the cost associated with returning products that should not be returned or the cost of products returned to the inappropriate destination. The point of entry into the reverse flow is the best point to eliminate unnecessary cost and management of materials by screening unwanted returned merchandise. This Involve finding ways to minimize the number of return requests. It can include ensuring that the quality of product and user friendliness for the consumer is at the highest attainable level before the product is sold and shipped, or changing promotional programs to increase sales when there is no/little realistic chance that the product shipped to the customer will be sold. 2.7.2. COMPACT/ DISPOSITION CYCLE TIME Another basic component to fruitful reverse logistics management is having short disposition process durations. The organizations that is, best at dealing with their reverse logistics management procedures are capable at gatekeeping, as depicted previously. These organizations are additionally ready to diminish process durations identified with return item choices, development, and preparing. While most returned item does not age well, plainly many firms have not found how to turn away an extensive maturing process on their profits. Frequently, when material regularly returns to a dissemination focus, it is uncertain whether the things are: deficient, can be reused or restored, or should be sent to a landfill. The test of running a circulation framework in forward is troublesome; it is harder still for organizations to allot assets to deal with the framework in reverse logistics. Some portion of the trouble that organizations have in compacting disposition process duration is that there does not appear to be much reward for assuming liability and settling on an auspicious (favorable conditions) choice with reference to how item ought to be manner. Representatives experience issues settling on choices when the choice guidelines are not obviously expressed and special cases are regularly made. It is less demanding to pass the item back to the past stage in the channel, since that lessens both individual and organization chance. 2.7.3. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEMS Adequate and accurate information is necessary for effective management of returns. It also known amongst the most major issues that organizations confront in the execution of a reverse logistics operation is the deficiency of good data frameworks. Not very many firms have effectively robotized the data encompassing the arrival procedure. In light of the reaction of firms incorporated into the research, reverse logisticians appear to feel that about zero great reverse logistics management data frameworks are industrially accessible. Since data frameworks assets are typically extended as far as possible, those assets are generally not accessible for reverse logistics applications. To function admirably, a reverse logistics data framework must be adoptable. Notwithstanding the issues depicted above, robotization of those procedures is troublesome in light of the fact that, reverse management forms have such a variety of special cases. Reverse management is ordinarily a limit traversing (moving) process between firms or specialty units of a similar organization. Creating frameworks that need to work crosswise over limits adds extra unpredictability to the issue. For the retailer, a framework that tracks returns at store level is alluring. The framework ought to make a database at the store level so that the retailer can start following returned item and tail it to the distance back through the pipeline. Additionally, the stores can check whether the buyers are conferring to the rules and regulations of the reverse supply chain or taken an undue advantages to violate the system “return manhandle” or attempting to exploit the store. These advantages have been acknowledged on the grounds that, the firm has perceived the main issue effect of reverse management and doled out its assets to chip away at reverse management frameworks issues. 2.7.3. 1. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM TRANSACTION PROCESSING In a genuinely coordinated inventory network, everybody in the store network can track item as it pushes ahead through the channel. While there are not very many supply chains that truly work this well, there are virtually none that work backward (reverse). Most firms can't track returns inside their own company, considerably less some place outside of their firm due to lack of reverse logistics systems in place. 2.7.3.2. RETAILER When rules and policies regarding returns are not well understood by partners, then its management can be very difficult as partners may not be willing to accept responsibility for such things as damages and defect. Supply chain conflict usually results into poor coordination which is fundamental to supply chain efficiency. A retailer might need to reorder item from its supplier promptly, At that point, directing for handling or a capacity area inside the preparing center will be needed. A reverse warehouse management system may be required for this step (vender management systems) 2.7.3.3. MANUFACTURER The manufacturers will create a return authorization (RA) through of (VMS).This is regularly a manual procedure. RA could be created electronically, including a programmed verify whether the return ought to be approved. Next, the reasonable money related effect of the return could be produced. These capacities would be extremely useful in better overseeing returns. The following steps are to computerize pickup of item and a propelled dispatching in advance notice (advance shipment notification ASN) could be cut. After it is delivered, it is received. Presently, most manufacturers manually get returns. Once the material is received, a database is made for compromise. Since most manufacturers physically get material, this database is made gradually in the event that, it is made by any means. This drowsiness (snowlines) brings about moderating the compromise and the attitude of the profits. 2.7.3.4. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) STANDARDS Electronic data interchange (EDI) trade is the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to move information internal and external in an organized. PC retrievable information arranges that licenses data to be exchanged from a PC program in one area to a PC program in another area, without manual mediation. A case is the transmission of an electronic receipt from a provider's invoicing programming to a client's records receivable programming. This definition incorporates the immediate transmission of information between areas and partners transmission utilizing a mediator, for example, a correspondence arrange, and the trading of advanced stockpiling gadgets, such as attractive tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs. EDI is a standout amongst the most essential subsets of electronic business the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to encourage the data trade between two gatherings in a business exchange. The expectation of all electronic trade is to computerize business forms. A few exchanges can be totally paperless and move information starting with one PC application then onto the next PC application. By strict definition EDI falls under this kind of electronic business. Other electronic business exchanges are additionally paperless yet include manual mediation. Illustrations are Internet exchanges requiring one gathering to enter information physically. Electronic mail is another case of paperless however manual electronic trade. Now and then firms claim to do EDI when they are truly playing out a manual-to-PC exchange, for example, electronic request passage. referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic-Data-Interchange-EDI. 2.7.3.5. THE BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE IN REVERSE LOGISTICS 1. EDI was created to take care of the issues inalienable in paper based exchange handling and in different types of electronic correspondence. In tackling these issues, EDI is a device that empowers associations to reengineer data streams and business forms. Issues with the paper-based exchange framework are as follows: 2. Time delays; Postponements are created fundamentally by two components. Paper reports may take days to transport starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, manual preparing postponements are brought on by the need to key, record, recover, and look at information 3. Labor costs, in non-EDI frameworks, manual handling is required for information keying, report putting away and recovering, sorting, coordinating, accommodating, envelope stuffing, stamping, marking, and so forth. While robotized hardware can help with some of these procedures, most administrators will concur that work costs for archive preparing speaks to a critical extent of their overhead. When all is said in done, work based procedures are substantially more costly than non-work serious operations including PCs and broadcast communications 4. Errors, since data is keyed numerous circumstances and records are transported, put away, and recovered by individuals, non-EDI frameworks have a tendency to be mistake inclined Instability. This exists in two territories. To begin with, paper transportation and other manual preparing defers imply that the time the report is gotten is unverifiable. Once an exchange is sent, the sender does not know when the exchange will be gotten or when it will be handled. Second, the sender does not know whether the exchange has been gotten at all nor whether the recipient concurs with what was sent in the exchange. 5. High Inventories. In light of time deferrals and instabilities in non EDI preparing, inventories are frequently higher than would normally be appropriate. Lead times with paper handling are long. In an assembling firm, it might be for all intents and purposes difficult to accomplish an in the nick of time stock framework with the time postpones inalienable in non-EDI handling frameworks. 6. Data Access, EDI grants client access to an immense measure of itemized exchange information—in a non-EDI condition this is conceivable just with extraordinary exertion and time delay. Since EDI information is now in PC retrievable shape, it is liable to robotized handling and examination. Such data helps one retailer, for instance, screen offers of toys by model, shading, and client postal division. This empowers the retailer to react rapidly to changes in buyer taste 2.7.4 CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTERS/CENTRALIZED REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN The reverse supply chain, also called reverse logistics is usually fragmented between different actors. This leads to that no one has the overall responsibility. This then again leads to inefficient solutions and sub-optimization. But it is possible to identify the responsibility and where the initiative should be for managing the reverse flows through adapting a centralized control over the reverse supply chain. This is a system where one organization is responsible for collection, sorting and redistributing of return items. Centralist restructure of reverse supply chain Product returns Retailers/ resellers (Larsen, Schary, and Mikkola Philip: 2009) Above a model of a reverse supply chain is demonstrated. The point with this system is “that the gate-keeping activities of collection, inspecting and sorting are centralized within on organization. The same organization or another company at the up-stream levels of the supply chain may take on the physical processing.” (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola and Philip: 2009) 2.7.4.1. TYPICAL BENEFITS FROM A CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTER 1. Simplified store procedures, 2.Improved supplier relationships, 3. Better returns inventory control, 4. Improved inventory turns, 5.Reduced administrative costs, 6. Reduced store level costs, 7.Reduced shrinkage, 8. Refocus on retailer core competencies, 9.Reduced landfill, 10. Improved management information. (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola Philip: 2009). CRCs improve in-store in the following forms. 1. ACCESSIBILITY: One of the biggest advantages of having all of your products in one central location means you have easy access whenever you need it. Instead of trying to keep track of which products are where, you know, at all times, where your products are and how to access them. 2. EFFICIENT: The fact that all of your products are in one central location will make shipping your products much more efficient. Yes, sometimes your products will have to travel a little further than they would if you had multiple distribution centers. However, spreading your products throughout multiple distribution centers could mean delays in the shipping of some products over others, potentially leading to customer dissatisfaction. Multiple distribution centers also means there are multiple delivery routes, which can make the logistics of distribution even more congested. 3. REPORTING: Depending on what sort of business you’re in or what sorts of products you offer customers, you need to keep a close eye on what you have in stock. With a central distribution center, creating these types of reports becomes incredibly easy. You only have to go to one source rather than track down multiple reports from multiple distribution centers. 4. COSTS: You’ll save money in the long run since you won’t operate multiple distribution centers. You will also be able to cut down on employee costs because it does not take as much manpower to operate a single facility when compared to multiple centers. 5. CONSISTENCY: Sending returns back to a CRC brings about more reliable choices being made about item disposition. Since procedures are institutionalized (standard), mistakes are all the more effectively recognized and kept away from. The quality of returns processing generally improves as the firm moves to a centralized processing model. 6. SPACE UTILIZATION: Retail locations by and large have extremely restricted space in the store to give to returns. Normally, a retail location needs to commit however bigger space as could be expected to the offering floor for moving products only. A retailer does not have any desire to commit much space to hold non-offering returns. 7. LABOR SAVINGS: By unifying returns handling, a retailer limits the work required to finish the preparing of profits. One appropriately prepared worker at the CRC can by and large accomplish more in less time than the consolidated endeavors of a few client benefit work area representatives. 8. TRANSPORTATION COSTS: Many of the companies included in this research also found that their reverse logistics-related transportation costs decline due to consolidation. With a CRC model, a retailer or manufacturer can utilize “milk runs” to pick up returned goods. This way, a company can move more pallets and fewer boxes, increasing consolidation and thereby reducing freight costs. 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE. From the manufacturers ' perspective, the concentrated model can enhance client benefit. It can speed the compromise procedure, enhance return material approval (RMA) confirmation, and be a piece of creating critical administration data. As a result of union of profits, a producer can be more effectively wind up noticeably mindful of patterns in returns. Likewise, great reverse logistics processes can be a promoting technique to keep customers satisfy, preparing the exchange rapidly and give the client credit assembles and client faithfulness. A few firms trust that their returns system activities give them an extraordinary chance to satisfy the customers. Operating CRCs is a way of motivation from the firm to involve returns activities into the overall corporate strategic plan. It implies that somebody, for example, the general administrator of the CRC has the duty of ensuring that returns are handled properly 10. PROFIT IMPACT. Returns have a lower effect on the productivity of those organizations using outsourced brought together return focuses than those not utilizing outsourced unified return focuses. Organizations that utilized an in-house CRC found that reverse logistics management costs lessened profitability by 4.8 percent, while those organizations that utilized an third party to deal with their CRC discovered gainfulness decreased by 3.7 percent. 11. VISIBILITY OF QUALITY PROBLEMS. One of the focal points identified with working with CRC is that it winds up plainly less demanding to see quality issues as item streams in from a few retail locations. By following many return approvals, a firm can assemble an information stockroom that contains return reasons. On the off chance that a quality issue exists with an item, union of profits will highlight those quality troubles more rapidly than if returns spill in gradually from retail client benefit work areas. 2.7.4.2. SETBACKS 1. The totally brought together framework that deal with transportation expenses can increment since all items must be transported from the retail stores to the incorporated office. On the off chance that an item will be discarded, transporting it to a brought together office just to discard it expands costs, yet does not build incomes, in light of the fact that the item is as yet discarded. Be that as it may, the cost investment funds, diminished mien time, and enhanced incomes related with the execution of CRCs more than compensate for transportation costs brought about if the item is to be rejected In many cases, products that are going to be thrown away would not be processed at the retail store, anyway. 2. It is frequently hard to get mien choice consistency over a chain of stores for a few reasons. The representatives dealing with the client benefit work area may not be appropriately concerned prepared, new, or not truly worried about returns. 2.7.4.3. FORWARD AND BACKWARD An extensive number of firms trust that appropriation focuses won't function admirably in both forward and in reverse. While at first this conviction did not appear to be consistent to me, numerous conveyance focuses that would endeavor to effectively handle both forward and reverse production network streams will have much challenges. The issue might be connected more to center than to genuine ability. On the off chance that the appropriation focus administrator needs to settle on a decision between productively executing forward logistics versus, reverse logistics management the dissemination supply chain will concentrate on forward dispersion. In each circumstance, forward circulation administration is the top need of a conveyance focus that has new item stream as one of its duties. Few of the organizations trust that process duration preparing is contrarily influenced when one dispersion focus handles both forward and reverse logistics distribution. In dispersion focuses that have a predetermined number of dock entryways and dock space, item returning has a tendency to be misused and the handling of that material is frequently put off. This issue of using a dissemination focus to work both forward and in reverse is one reason that few firms are searching out for. It is troublesome for administrators to legitimize the cost of developing and staffing a huge building committed to taking care of "failures"–which is precisely how returned item is frequently seen inside the organization. A few firms concentrated under the examination can perform forward and reverse logistics operations in a similar office via precisely isolating both the stream of item and the workers. This division enables the reverse logistics management representatives to concentrate on the arrival stream and not be occupied by forward dispersion exercises. 2.7.5. ZERO RETURNS In a zero returns program, a provider tells its clients that no item will be acknowledged for return, “once ordered typically a Ghanaian adage which goes like “money paid is not refundable”. Rather, the provider will give the client a rebate off of the invoiced sum. Contingent upon the provider, the retailer either annihilates the item, or discards it in some other way. In another model being used in the PC business, the retailer gives back all items to a main issue on open return material approval (RMA). Usable item is paid for and sent to an outsider for restoration and disposition. Ineligible or unusable item is discarded in light of a predefined set of guidelines. In this model, the objective for the retailer is to enroll many producers as could reasonably be expected to take an interest, to empower incorporated getting, assessing, and installment handling. 2.7.5.1 2% TO 6% METHOD: An eminent method with zero merchandise exchanges is one that can be alluded to as the "2%/6%" method. In light of the impressive power that vast retailers have in the channel, it is hard for producers to proclaim a suitable returns stipend and stick to it. For instance, if a producer is pitching item to Kmart, and sets a six percent returns top, Kmart would consent to that top if the profits of the producer item don't surpass six percent. Truth be told, Kmart would likely be extremely cheerful if its real returns rate was two percent while it was accepting credit for six percent returns. Kmart would have the capacity to utilize the extra return top cash as a refund. In any case, if the producer sets a two percent return top and the real return rate is six percent, Kmart is not liable to agree to the producer's set return top rate. The retailer would rather demand that the producer cover the whole six percent returns. Due to the energy of the substantial retailers, most producers are not in a position to contend about the arrival top rate. This combined with the powerlessness of the producer to really control the demeanor of the item implies that, the retailer has fewer hazards than the producers from a zero returns program. A compelling zero returns programs require that both the purchaser and merchant genuinely comprehend what their real expenses are. 2.7.6. REMANUFACTURE AND REFURBISHMENT Thierry, et al. (1995) characterized five classifications of remanufacture and repair. These five classifications appeared in Table below repair, renovating, remanufacturing, cannibalization, and reusing. The initial three classes: repair, renovating, and remanufacturing, include item recondition and update. These alternatives vary as for the level of change. Repair includes minimal measure of push to overhaul the item, and remanufacture involves a lot. Cannibalization is basically the recuperation of a confined arrangement of reusable parts from utilized items (short item life cycle, because of the presentation of new item or else obsolete item). Reusing is the reuse of materials that were a piece of another item or subassembly. Remanufacturing and repairing of utilized item is on the ascent. Indeed, even NASA shuttle are being worked with remanufactured and renovated apparatuses. Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold 2.7.7. ASSET RECOVERY Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as drilling equipment, and reusable containers vehicles, bicycles, Coleman etc. 2.7.8. NEGOTIATION Bargaining making is a key portion of the reverse logistics process. In the forward stream of merchandise, costs are regularly set by brand administrators and promoting authorities. Reverse logistics frequently incorporates a haggling stage, where the estimation of returned material is consulted without valuing rules. These arrangements might be taken care of freely. Likewise, at least one of the arrangement accomplices frequently does not completely comprehend the genuine estimation of the returned materials, making open doors for specialist third parties to work on the edge. These third parties frequently utilize a portion of the most honed logisticians. This third party would demonstrate in a counseling ability to the essential members of the reverse network who are attempting to exchange responsibility for material back to the first source. Additionally, the third party can deal with the physical handling of the materials. Organizations, By and large, a similar third party does not deal with the esteem transactions and physical handling of the item for both the retailer and the upstream producer. There are exemptions to this govern, yet typically retailers and producers need distinctive third party to follow up for their sake to wipe out potential irreconcilable situation. 2.7.9. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgetary administration issues are the essential determinants in the structure of reverse logistics system and the way in which item is manned. Most firms need to enhance inner bookkeeping forms. Bookkeeping issues drive the activities of directors. In fan milk Ghana limited, in this research, bookkeeping issues drove stores manager to avoid typical return frameworks. In these cases, inner strategies and controls moved them to wasteful, wrong practices. Regularly, the cost of profits is charged against the business division. While this approach may for the most part be a sensible one, it can complicate reverse logistics processes. On the off chance that business work force are punished for returns, they will make a special effort to back off or crush the brisk acknowledgment of profits and the fast disposition of returned material. Issues identified with charge backs and main concern obligation regarding returns must be a key thought when building up a decent reverse logistics management framework. Dealing with what a provider is to be paid, when arrangements and advancements are figured in, can be a test. Be that as it may, returns are regularly the main issue in accommodating records receivables. Due to these difficulties, third parties have begun to specialize in handling accounting and reconciliation issues. 2.7.10. OUTSOURCING REVERSE LOGISTICS In general, outsourcing can be described as the transfer of activities that were previously conducted in-house, to a third party. Ellram and Billington (2001) see outsourcing primarily as: The transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party’. A wider definition is reported by NEVI (2000): Outsourcing means that the company divests itself of the resources to fulfil a particular activity to another company to focus more effectively on its own competence. The difference with subcontracting is the divestment of assets, infrastructure, people and competencies. Many organizations are outsourcing most or the greater part of their supply chain operations. Some of these organizations are extending their outsourcing to reverse logistics operations. These organizations are utilizing their reverse logistics outsource provider as a benchmark to help figure out what and how reverse activities ought to be performed, and how much those activities ought to cost. Regularly, these outsource providers perform reverse activities well, and their clients find that utilizing these administration firms lessen the regulatory bother of doing it without anyone's help. These outsource providers have progressed toward becoming masters in dealing with the reverse flow, and performing key value-added services, such as remanufacturing and renovating. Examples; coca cola bottling and Guinness Ghana limited contracting (outsourcing) it assets returns or (recovery), such as crates, bottles sorting and transportation to DHL and others. 2.8. USING REVERSE LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction happens when the organizations meet or outperform customer wants. Frankly, in light of current conditions, customers regularly contemplate having their perception, organization (benefit procedures) and support essentials met, and significantly less about how their suppliers do it. What customers genuinely need is to have their voices heard - and from that point forward, have their suppliers/providers truly make a move (i.e., they have to get happens). Most companies utilize their supply chain and reverse logistics management tool as market differentiators. The reason for existing is to keep customers so content with their product and activities, sometimes as of late, in the midst of, and taking after the main transport, that they remain devoted to their suppliers, repurchasing their items or possibly benefits again, and yet again, and yet again. Be that as it may, in the last mentioned, the assessment depends on the client's aggregate pre-and post-buy involvement with the organization's items, administrations and support after some time (i.e., this "signify customer understanding"). Firms that incorporate new advancements, for instance: UPC scanner labels, RFIDs, etc. Into their return management are all things considered more inclined to develop and keep up strong customer relation over the long time in the manner of their development enhanced limits. 2.8.1 The principal attributes that eventually separate one Logistics Company (and its reverse logistic process) from another may be classified basically as follows. 1. Dexterous/ Agile Adaptability, or how well (and how rapidly) the organization can react to changes in its client or showcase requests and, thus, build up the new logistics procedures, items and administrations required to meet (and surpass) the channel members. 2. Inventory Management, The capacity to oversee both the cost and the accessibility of inventories adequately to the need and wants of the members’ satisfactions 3. Cycle Times, the time it takes the company to satisfy members and related exercises, both on the inbound and return management sides; 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the utilization of the most proper, auspicious and precise measurements for measuring execution (and consumer loyalty) on a progressing premise and. 3. Market Position and Presence, The limit of the relationship to develop, keep up and propel its coordination (reverse management) capacities and qualities both to its present customers and to the business focus with everything taken into account. For instance, if a firm does not have the most ideal reverse logistics set up, either in light of the way that they are not the best methodology, or they don't exist inside the firm by any extend of the creative ability, then it will be basically unequipped for giving the administration and reinforce its customers require. Moreover, paying little notice to how reasonable and all around arranged the systems may be, if they don't move the customers' products out and back quickly enough, shopper dependability will toward the day's end raise its immense head. Finally, if the firm can't evaluate either its own specific pivot supply operations or its customers' appraisals of its execution, then it will never know decisively where it stays in the minds of its customers or how to upgrade its operations to meet customer wants. 2.8.1. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONNECTION; Statistical survey has demonstrated that clients trust the accompanying ascribes to be of the best significance for both forward and reverse logistics: 1. Elimination of slow or lost shipments 2.Elimination of shipment discrepancies 3.Improved profit margins through the use of optimization tools 4. Reduction of inventory carrying costs for the customer 5.Support for its customers' efforts to reduce inventory investments, 6.Significantly reduced product/part returns, 7.Improved customer service and satisfaction through: ? Improved delivery reliability ? Improved efficiencies in customers' shipping/receiving operations ? One version of the "truth" for dispute resolution 2.8.2. Regardless, for there is truly be a "bond," or "relationship," between the reverse logistics organizations provider and its customers, there must in like manner be the going with shared characteristics 1. Mutually high expectations for the success of the partnership 2. Mutual loyalty 3. Framework/capability for technical data/information exchange (e.g., EDI) 4. Willingness to share risks/provide assistance in critical situations 5. Willingness to negotiate/mediate differences of opinion/interpretation 6. Use of joint provider/user task forces/teams 7. Two-way, frequent communications and feedback channels 8. Joint performance monitoring and tracking (i.e., against pre-set goals) 2.9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RL PRACTICES AND PROFITABILITY OF THE COMPANY Every firm is most worried with its profitability; a standout amongst the most every now and again utilized instruments of money related proportion investigation is benefit proportions which are utilized to decide the organization's main concern and its arrival to its speculators (Jensen and Webster, 2009). Profitability measures are imperative to organization directors and proprietors particularly in deciding the monetary execution of a firm and basic leadership. Productivity proportions demonstrate an organizations general effectiveness and execution. Productivity proportions can be separated into two sorts: edges and returns. Proportions that show edge speak to the organizations capacity to make an interpretation of offers in cedis into benefits at different phases of estimation. Proportions that show returns speak to the company's capacity to gauge the general productivity of the firm in creating returns for its shareholders (Lim and Lovell, 2009). Reverse logistics process profoundly adds to benefit of firms; already most firms particularly producing firms lost a considerable measure of profit. Today, return management is seen by most firms as a method for recouping lost benefits. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004), profitability investigation is a vital method for surveying management activities and proposed changes to a company's strategic frameworks (Richey, Genchev and Daugherty, 2005). Profitability studies goes past aggregate cost assessment by joining the income effect of calculated exercises. For instance, an enhanced level of administration may achieve expanded income as clients react to larger amounts of returns. Such changes must be incorporated with calculated framework activities. Moreover, the effect of advantages, for example, stock levels, debt claims and settled calculated resources ought to be joined into an exhaustive productivity investigation approach (Mueller, 1990). Basic return management capacities can cost organizations millions in lost benefits because of harmed client connections and outer liabilities that could enormously affect their business. Successfully oversaw, notwithstanding, return management activities can empower associations to discover shrouded benefits, enhance consumer loyalty and limit liabilities. Fleischmann and Kuik (2003), is that the normal producer will spend9% to 15% of aggregate income on returns, as indicated by a 2010 Aberdeen Group think about. They are frequently ignorant of the effect returns administration can have on their clients, their assets or their primary concern. Actually, enhancing reverse activities operations can help organization improve income up to 5% of aggregate deals (Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro, 2004). Reverse logistic practices assume a vital part of recovering the estimation of returned items or legitimately discarding them. An open door with this request of greatness has affected many organizations to push the limits of incorporated Reverse logistic practices to discover better approaches to streamline operations, drive benefits, and enjoyment clients. On top of that, some ground breaking organizations have made new lines of income through their aptitude in giving incorporated Reverse logistic benefits that sliced through the boundaries (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). Fawcett et al. (1995) contend that Reverse logistic practices can incorporate picking up input to make upgrades and to enhance the comprehension of genuine purposes behind item give back, this assume an imperative part in the development of an association prompting money related, natural and societal increases. 2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK From the basis of this study, the independent variables affect the dependent variable, which is profitability of manufacturing firms (industry) in Ghana. To this extent therefore, increase in profitability in manufacturing firms in Ghana, depends on how effective the manufacturing firms implement reverse logistics practices. The conceptual model indicated below will be used to explain the reverse logistics practices and how they will be used to lead to an increase in profitability of fan milk Ghana limited. DRIVERS: PROCESSES: ACTIVITIES: ELEMENTS: RESULTS: 2.11. CONTRIBUTIONS ON REVERSE LOGISTICS By reviewing the reverse logistics literature, I found some topics that are commonly studied by researchers which are worth knowing in order to get a general idea of what has been studied and what hasn’t. I will do a brief review of these research topics in this section. Early reverse logistics researchers seem to be more focus on the large-scale view of reverse logistics; most of their work went into the whole process of reverse flow. For example, (Kim et. al., 2007) studied on BOM (bill-of-material) restructuring and the development of bills of material to serve to challenges of remanufacturing. His study suggested that the forecasting of sales has to be fine-tuned to reflect the uncertainty and variety of core returns for both salvaged and new parts. Traditionally, manufacturers did not feel responsible for their products after they were sold to the consumers. The greater part of utilized items were dumped or burned with significant harm to the earth. Today, consumers and authorities experts anticipate that, producers will diminish the waste created by their items. Therefore, waste management has gotten expanding consideration. Recently, attention has been moving towards recovery, because of the high costs and environmental burdens of disposal. Firms turn out to be increasingly in charge of gathering, destroying and updating of utilized items and bundling materials. (RevLog, 1998), Webb (1994) discussed the “green movement”, he indicated that more environmental concerns are influencing reverse logistics activities, e.g. packaging regulation, customer preferences, these environmental issues are becoming big concerns about reverse logistics. Some literature addressed the focus on reverse logistics concerning product handling, e.g. transportation, inventory management, and distribution. White (1994) described importance of reverse logistics for material handling; material handling contains moving, storing, protecting and controlling materials. He indicated that, in the material handling system, protection is the first priority. Dawe (1995) viewed return management as the best opportunity to differentiate customer service and create a competitive advantage for a firm. In order to take the opportunity, Dawe (1995) suggested that the most needed reengineering factors are return process and warehousing operations. Fuller & Allen (1996) asserts that, waste is an unavoidable by-product of resource-conversion processes in the economic system and materials are recycled as part of a resource program that supports sustainable development in efforts to manage waste. The use of information on systematic way will help reverse channel networks for recyclable materials, and the lobbying efforts to support the passage of a recycling bill. Some researcher put reverse logistics practice into quantitative models. For instance, Clegg, Williams, & Uzsoy (1995) presented a linear programming model to investigate the effects of recycling and remanufacturing on companies? operations. One of the more interesting and significant trends in supply chain management is the recognition of the strategic importance of reverse logistics operations. (Retzlaf and others, 1997) These reverse logistics operations support a variety of activities ranging from what is termed “green logistics,” i.e., “efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the supply chain” to activities that encompass product returns, repairs, and refurbishment. (Daugherty and others, 2001) Firms can use this model to analyze the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing operations (Clegg et al, 1995). Aside for the above example, there are many other quantitative models contributed by various researchers (Fleischmann et al., 1997; Guide Jr, Srivastava, & Spencer, 1996; Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). These models can be used to improve numerous dimensions of reverse logistics practices, such as, extending product life cycles, protecting product failures, etc... Another commonly studied topic of logistics research is the application of reverse logistics. Kroon &Vrijens (1995) focus their attention on the waste avoidance, they asserted that “a change in attitude towards the environment is an absolute necessity”, and they proposed a whole process of “collection, recycling and reuse of products and materials” (Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). Autry et al. (2001) looked at the catalog retailing industry, investigating how reverse logistics performance and satisfaction with reverse logistics service are influenced by factors such as firm size, sales volume, and internal/external assignment of disposition. They came up with practical results suggesting that “neither performance nor satisfaction was significantly influenced by location of responsibility for disposition” (Autry et al., 2001). A recent study conducted by Breen (2006) analyzed the customer compliance in reverse logistics practices. This cross-industry study reported that without customer compliance, efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be seriously undermined; the losses are reported up to 144 million pounds. These literatures cover a wide range of topics, but there are some issues left out due to the time and financial constraints and would have been useful if addressed. To be more specific, these research mostly focus on industrial level issues, majority of articles are short and lack the depth to demonstrate the level of integration necessary to implement reverse logistics to functional areas such as consumer market. Marketing research on the other hand, frequently focuses on the customer, tend to neglect operational, supply chain issues (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). This study is conducted in hope to redress these shortcomings by linking the reverse logistics and marketing issue in the context of end-customer. Source: Mohammed shaik 2.12. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND KNOWLEDGE GAP REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE. There are no exact writing incorporates the requirement for reverse logistics management practices and how it impacts benefit of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. No Previous reviews lay more concrete or concentrate on reverse logistics management and execution; the reviews did not address issues of reverse logistics management practices and gainfulness of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. The researcher therefore thinks that it’s important to address this issue by assessing reverse logistics management practices utilized by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana and the relationship between reverse logistics management practices, productivity (profitability) and environmental issues of by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana. Reverse logistics management practices is one of the courses in which beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana can use to build their benefit through making most extreme utilization of their waste items and materials to deliver esteem included merchandise and enterprises at a lessened cost which consequently will prompt to enhanced consumer satisfaction and hence loyalty, increase market share and revenue and ultimately profitability of the firms. Recent studies show that, there is no specific Performance variable that adds to return management. There is no definite framework of return management performance measurement. There are no studies on evaluation as to how the return management organizations can implement return management successfully. Strategy, process, capabilities and perspectives, and their sub criteria attributes are very important strategic issues to the top management; there is no evidence about feather research on that, less to talk about its importance on the return management in supply chain management CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is to provide a review of the literature relevant to the research goals of this thesis. It places a particular emphasis on works concerned with reverse logistics flow of products and services in manufacturing sector. It continues with the contributions other researchers made on reverse logistics. This is followed by discussions of reverse logistics drivers, processes and activities and elements in a manufacturing firm. In its final parts it discusses the role of reverse logistics on customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2.1. DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS 2.1.1 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management is essentially an integrative process that seeks to optimize the flows of materials and supplies through the organization and its operations to the customer. It is essentially a planning process and an information-based activity. Requirements from the marketplace are translated into production requirements and then into materials requirements through this planning process. It is now being recognized that, for the real benefits of the logistics concept to be realized, there is a need to extend the logic of logistics upstream to suppliers and downstream to final customers. This is the concept of supply chain management. Global logistics: (new directions in supply chain management)/ [edited by] Donald waters. — 6th edition. Logistics is characterized by the board of organizations administration as the procedure of arranging, executing, and controlling the proficient, financially savvy stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed products and related data from the purpose of inception to the point of utilization with the end goal of adjusting to client prerequisites. Logistics is for the most part the nitty gritty association and execution of an unpredictable operation in a general negotiating prudence, Logistics is the administration of the stream of things between the purpose of root and the purpose of utilization with a specific end goal to meet necessities of clients or organizations. The assets overseen in coordinations (Logistics) can incorporate physical things, for example, nourishment, materials, creatures, hardware, and fluids; and in addition dynamic things, for example, time and data. The coordinations of physical things generally includes the reconciliation of data stream, material dealing with, generation, bundling, stock, transportation, warehousing, returns and frequently security. In military science, coordinations is worried about keeping up armed force supply lines while upsetting those of the adversary, since an outfitted compel without assets and transportation is exposed. Military coordinations was at that point rehearsed in the antiquated world and as current military have a huge requirement for coordinations arrangements, propelled usage have been created. In military coordinations, coordinations officers oversee how and when to move assets to the spots they are required 2.1.2 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management is entire network of entities, internal and external members with the common interest of satisfying the final consumer. These members include supply of raw material, manufacturers who convert raw material into product, warehouse/ stores that stores the product transportation that convey the product to the distributor, retailer, as they intern transport the product to the final consumer. Supply chain underlie esteem chain in line of the fact that, without them, no producer can give consumers what they need, when and where they need it at the value they need it. Manufacturers compete with each other through their supply chains, and no level of change at the producers end can compensate for the insignificancies in any inventory network which limit the producer capacity to satisfaction. (Business dictionary) August 6, 2015 by Surbhi S 2.1.3 CONTRASTS BETWEEN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN 1. Logistics management is centered more around interior (expansive) physical development of items and materials, while SCM incorporates Logistics management notwithstanding having a general perspective of materials, data, budgetary and operational procedures. SCM concentrates on both interior and outside sources and plans for the ideal results. 2. Description; Logistics is the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling strategies for the proficient and powerful transportation and capacity of merchandise, including administrations and related data, yet store network from the purpose of root to the point of utilization. Store network management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, data, and funds as they move in a procedure from supplier to producer to distributer to retailer to the final consumer. 3. Relationship with different divisions, Logistics does not specifically takes an interest in other office or portions, (SCM) May take an interest in activities such as, research and advertising that may directly affect the store network 4. The primary point of Logistics is full consumer loyalty. Then again, the primary point behind Supply Chain Management is competitive edge. 5. Logistics is just a movement of Supply Chain Management. 6. (L) Part of Supply Chain Management, (SC) Part of Management of the Company Source: Surbhi S 2.1.4. CONCLUSION Logistics is an extremely old term, ideal from the earliest starting point used as a piece of the military, for the upkeep, stockpiling and transportation of outfitted drive individuals and items. Nowadays, this term is used as a piece of various circles, not especially in the military after the progression of Supply Chain Management. It has moreover been said that SCM is an alternative over Logistics Management and what's more SCM contains Logistics. Both are indivisible. Consequently they don't invalidate however supplement each other. SCM makes Logistics be in contact with the transportation, stockpiling and movement gathering. Distinction amongst logistics and supply chain management 2.1.5. REVERSE LOGISTICS reverse logistics is defined by The Council of Logistics Management as ``The way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, financially savvy stream of raw materials, in-progress stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of beginning with the end goal of recovering worth or appropriate transfer/ disposal``. Return Logistics is a part of logistics. Generally when logistics is mentioned just a single way is thought of. That is the point at which the merchandise leaves the organization and is transported to the client. Reverse Logistics handles issues, for example, remanufacturing, renovating, reusing or transfer to utilize assets adequately. Dowlatshahi (2000,) Reverse logistics is a procedure in which a producer deliberately acknowledges vitally sent items or parts from the point for utilization for conceivable reusing, remanufacturing or /disposal transfer." Another definition by Hawks (2006) is that reverse logistics is "the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, practical stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of starting point with the end goal of recovering worth or legitimate transfer or disposal." She at that point keeps on clarifying it as reverse logistics is the way toward moving products from their final destination with the end goal of catching wealth, or appropriate transfer/disposal. A third meaning of invert coordinations by Larsen, Schary Mikkola and Philip (2007) is that reverse logistics envelops a wide scope of exercises inside, and outside of, logistics including: item returns, source decrease, reusing, material conveyance, reuse of material, squander disposal/ transfer and revamping, repair and remanufacturing. 2.2. REVERSE FLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE Overseeing reverse logistics is presently an essential component of supply chain management and, sometimes, a benefit creating capacity. Reverse logistics is turning into an essential part of supply chain management. Many organizations that, already, did not give much time, vitality or attention to the administration and comprehension of reverse have started to focus. Firms have started to benchmark return operations with best in-class administrators. Industries that spend significant time in returns have seen interest for their administrations extraordinarily expanded. Developing enthusiasm for natural concern around the world, constrained organizations to take part in reverse management, for example, re-utilization of items and materials and reusing. For all intents and purposes, the vast majority of the organizations manage returns of some nature on account of issues, for example, promoting returns, harm or quality issues, overloads, renovating or remanufacturing. Handling returns present a great challenge for companies, while in many cases becomes a necessity for keeping customers satisfaction to a certain level. Reverse logistics operations in a supply chain may be considered as an introduction to innovative services of a company's portfolio. They may importantly affect an association's key execution as far as market viability, and additionally, inward cost effectiveness. Through reverse logistics management advancement, it might be conceivable to extend income through market development because of record customization, benefit enlargement and enhanced consumer loyalty. Reverse management is turning into a territory of upper hand. For example, the accompanying; 1. Positive normal impact: institutions acts, commitment laws," oblige creators to develop an approach for the social occasion and reuse of things toward the complete of their life cycle 2. Competitiveness progressions, proficient treatment of returns leads to reduced costs, increased profits and improved customer service. 3. Regaining esteem: effective reverse logistics can catch values from reusing items or parts or recycling materials 4. Financial matters (immediate and backhanded), return management activities can lead to addition to organizations through lesser utilization of raw materials, including value addition of product recovery processes, decrease in costs of disposal, and so forth. The company likewise gets engaged with return management processes because of competition in the marketing, rivalry, as well as vital issues (strategic), which may bring indirect benefits. A conservative estimate is that reverse logistics is a significant portion of some major companies and the economies as a whole, such as the U.S, China, England as well as middle income economies such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya etc. Logistics costs were estimated to account for approximately 8.5% of the U.S economy in 2013. However, the exact amount of reverse logistics activity is difficult to determine because most companies do not carefully track reverse logistics costs. For the firms studied in this research, reverse logistics accounted, on average, for approximately 4.25% of total logistics costs. Applying this mean percentage to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), reverse logistics costs are estimated to be approximately one half of a percent of the total U.S. GDP. (”Delaney estimates that logistics costs accounted for $921 billion in 1999”). Based on the Delaney respondent sample, is that reverse logistics costs amounted to approximately $39.1425 billion in 1999. The size, scope, and impact of reverse logistics vary by industry and channel position as well as the type of distribution channel. It is clear, however that, the overall amount of reverse logistics activity in the economy is large and still growing. Within specific industries, reverse logistics activities can be critical for the firm. Generally, when the value of the product is large, or the return rate is great, much more effort has to be spent on improving return processes. In 1998, the remanufactured auto parts market was estimated by the Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA) at $36 billion. Rebuilding and remanufacturing conserve a considerable amount of resources. As indicated by the APRA, around half of a car starter is recuperated in the reconstructing procedure. This may bring about sparing a few million gallons of unrefined petroleum, and also steel and different metals. The APRA gauges that crude materials spared by remanufacturing worldwide would fill 155,000 railroad autos yearly, a travel more than 1,100 miles in length. 2.3 DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS Past reviews recommended that reverse management can be influenced by different elements inside and outside an organization. Internal considerations involved senior management commitment, support and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities (Routroy, 2009), Outside elements incorporate weights from government (regulatory bodies), customers, suppliers and competitors (Carter and Ellram, 1998; Wu and Cheng, 2006), Broad audit of the accessible writing uncovers four essential drivers for reverse logistics: regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility and expected business benefits. For example, Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) and Daher et al. (2006) contended that the primary reasons that make firms endeavor to adopt reverse logistics are: 1. Environmental enactment, which force organizations to reclaim their flawed items, waste or discharges 2. Economic benefits of using returned products in the production process such as recapture of value and recovery of assets 3. Growing public environmental laws and awareness 2.3.1.0 EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS In the Ghanaian context, there are no previous studies found investigating the drivers for reverse logistics. However, related studies tend to emphasis the importance of the four drivers identified earlier. For instance, Raman and Peir (2006) conducted interviews with 10 SMEs in Malaysia and found that the main drivers for corporate social responsibility activities (waste recycling, paperless technology and use of biodegradable containers) are: professional code of conduct and ethics, customer pressures (for firms that are suppliers to venders/ MNCs), expected financial returns (especially from recycling), personal values of the owner and reputation. The following subsections illustrate each of the stipulated drivers for reverse logistics (regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility, expected business benefits and the internal drivers) and their roles in motivating firms to adopt reverse logistics initiatives. 2.3.1.1 REGULATIONS Business organizations are expected to adopt green purchasing in response to environmental regulations set by various regulatory institutions such as government bodies inside the country, regulations in other countries (mainly import and export companies),such as the fan milk coca cola and Guinness etc. in the industry in Ghana in addition to regulations set by the parent companies. Such regulations take the form of formal rules, laws, sanctions and incentives (Scott, 1995). Firms try to avoid potential costs, uncertainty and legal liabilities inherent in existing and anticipated regulations (Clemens and Douglas, 2006). Moreover, regulatory institutions may provide inducements for organizations to behave in a certain way. Inducement mechanisms include providing incentives to organizations for conforming to the demands of the agency that offers the inducement as well as punishment to offenders (Grewal and Dharwadkar, 2002). Currently, there are more strict legislations regulations in many countries, especially in Europe, that require business organizations to take responsibility for their products from production up to the final disposal which strengths producers to assume liability for their items toward the finish of their product life, and RoSH, which requires safe disposal or recycling of consumed products. Previous studies found that firms adopt reverse logistics initiatives in response to these regulations (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Ravi et al., 2005; Murphy and Poist, 2003; Blumberg, 1999; Carter and Ellram, 1998). In Ghana, there are no government regulations that directly require business organizations to undertake reverse logistics activities. Example is Automakers worldwide are ramping up the industry's biggest-ever recall after parts supplier Takata, under pressure from U.S. authorities, agreed earlier last year to declare more of its air bags as defective in the United States and other countries. fortune Toyota -recall-takata airbag cars 2.3.1.2 CUSTOMER PRESSURES Customers represent the major financial stakeholders that buy products and services of organizations. As such, customers can exert considerable pressures and may communicate goals of sustainability or environmental performance on these organizations. Past studies found that client weight is one of the significant drivers for reverse supply chain management. For example, Alvarez-Gil et al. (2007) found that clients have huge impact on final decision on reverse supply chain programmes in an organization. Similarly, Carter and Ellram (1998) emphasized the importance of pressures from consumers and intermediate customers such as retailers, in affecting reverse logistics activities. 2.3.1.3 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES The enthusiasm for reverse supply chain is relied upon to radiate not just from the outer condition (regulations, profit and customers) but additionally from the inside awareness of other's expectations of a firm towards the general public in which it exists. For SRM, such affectability is escalated by the continually expanding natural issues, for example, a worldwide temperature alteration and contamination. Such problems are expected to raise the awareness of business firms to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. The ordinary supply chains are based on a linear production paradigm, which relies on constant input of virgin natural resources and unlimited environmental capacity for assimilation of wastes (Geyer and Jackson, 2004).Therefore, through reverse logistics, a firm can be more socially responsible by considering minimizing its use of virgin materials and reducing the level of waste. Drumwright (1994), Murphy and Poist (2003) and Ravi et al. (2005) discovered that, social responsibility has significant impact on green supply chain initiatives (green purchasing and Social responsibility), Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse with more than 1,100 victims as a reasons of substandard materials used as well as the persistent flooding in Accra and resent fire outbreak at circle have led to widespread discussions about corporate social responsibility across global reverse supply chains. 2.3.1.4 EXPECTED BUSINESS BENEFITS Revenue (profit) and financial returns are the most vital objectives of business organizations. In this sense, every decision is evaluated based on cost–benefit criteria. Environmental initiatives are expected to come along with this general rule, i.e., a firm needs to expect business benefits from green initiatives before it engages in these initiatives. Expected business benefits demonstrate that organizations adopt reverse logistics activities, for example, reusing and reusing of items and materials, in foresight of the way that these activities can possibly enhance gainfulness of these organizations through cost minimization and expanded incomes (Stock et al., 2002). Indeed, even without prompt benefit, adopt reverse logistics activities might be useful to create potential immaterial advantages, for example, change of corporate picture (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Toffel, 2004). Past reviews found that normal business benefits effectively affect reverse logistics activities. (Blumberg, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005) Review about US`s economy shows that expected benefits, such as cost savings, marketing opportunities and financial returns from resale of return products, represent important drivers for green initiatives. For instance, Anbumozhi and Kanda (2005,) argued that “companies in Asia need to see business value to justify the cost associated with compliance to a formal environmental standard” Zulkifli and Amran (2006,) argued that, “companies in Malaysia follow corporate social responsibility practices if they can get something in return.” 2.3.2.0. INTERNAL FACTORS The Internal factors include top management commitment and support, and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities. 2.4.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES As the former discourse shows, there are numerous exercises that could fall under the heading of reverse logistics, as defined already. Of all, the reverse logistics obligations inside an organization, which exercises qualify as reverse logistics? 2.4.1.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES An autonomous reverse logistics process begins with the end client choice that the item has achieved the finish of its life, harms or defective and should be discarding, repair or replicate the materials (Blumberg, 2005). These processes may include asset recovery and recycling management, field and technical support, parts planning, returns and repair management and service parts logistics (Biederman, 2006). In general, return process activities can be grouped into three stages, namely (1) product collection and transportation, (2) inspection, separation and sorting, and (3) recovery and disposition also known as the reverse logistics operations. 2.4.1.1 PRODUCT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION Typical reverse logistics activities would be the processes a company uses to collect used, damaged, unwanted, or outdated products, as well as packaging and shipping materials from the end-user or the reseller. Once the item has been received by the company, the firm has other disposal options from which to choose. When a product is nearing its expiring date or damage, customers never put their attention on it rather discard it or returned to the company for refund. So collection is the base of the reverse logistic and analyzing it`s transportation network design of supply chain is initiated.’ the blend of various system framework is key to have the capacity to coordinate well among the different individuals from the store network of the organizations: provider, clients, Distribution Center, Cross-docking and last mile approach. The principle preferred standpoint of this system is decreasing cost, time and enhancing the responsiveness. And furthermore this is the ideal system for gathering item reversely. 2.4.1.2 INSPECTION, SEPARATION AND SORTING Returned products need to be classified according to quality and composition in order to determine the route in the reverse chain (Le Blanc, 2006 PWC, 2008). The inspection, separation and sorting stage occurs at the collection point where the products are inspected and sorted on the basis of their quality (Ji, 2008; Wang et al., 2010) and then separated, which entails splitting the flow of used products according to their disposal options (Yimsiri, 2009). This stage thus denotes all operations determining whether a given product is reusable and in what way (Yimsiri, 2009), Inspection, separation and sorting may encompass testing, disassembly, shredding and storage (Wang et al., 2010; Yimsiri, 2009). After this stage, the organization must determine the reuse manner of the product and classify it (Ji, 2008) in order to move to the next stages of reprocessing, recovery and disposition. 2.4.1.3 RECOVERY AND DISPOSITION Recovery is the process of regain or discovering value from the returned product, components and materials (Le Blanc, 2006). Product disposition refers to the different ways organizations attempt to recover the costs of products that are being returned (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition involves putting the product back into inventory or temporary storage, repackaging, repair, refurbishing or remanufacturing (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition thus refers to the determination of ultimate outcome for the product (Genchev et al., 2010). Ultimately, “final disposition” refers to the exit route returned products finally take (Bernon et al., 2011). At the end of these processes, numerous disposition options are available to organizations. These reverse logistics disposition options form part of the activities and processes in reverse logistics. 2.5.0. TYPES/RATIONALE FOR RETURENS Understanding why returns occur helps identify opportunities for improving supply chain processes and decision-making.There are many types of returns that need to be managed, each of which poses unique challenges. Based on The Global Supply Chain forum, we group returns into five categories: consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, product recalls and environmental returns. 1. Consumer Returns: consumer returns product defects are generally the largest category of returns. Many companies have liberal returns policies that make it easy for consumers to return products. This is based on the belief that consumers will continue to purchase from a retailer with liberal returns policies which increase the retailer’s revenue. Main examples include: Defective returns: At the consumer or end-customer level, defective product comes back after purchase and some level of use. Such returns could indicate quality problems that need to be resolved in manufacturing or distribution. 2. No fault found’ returns: But many times firms find no defects upon inspection of returned products. These no fault found returns may be indicative of customers not understanding how to use the product appropriately, not being able to properly install the product, or simply finding that the product was not what they were expecting. These returns signal the need to re-engineer the product or communicate more effectively to customers about what to expect and how to use/install the product. Understanding the reasons for defective returns and no fault found returns requires the involvement of a cross-functional team that might include product design, engineering, packaging, manufacturing, distribution and marketing. The goal is to identify why these types of returns are happening and work to reduce their volume. 1. Marketing Returns: marketing returns consist of products returned from a position forward in the supply chain. At the retail or intermediary level, returns often come back due to slow-moving stock, quality issues, end-of-season inventory adjustments, or as a means to release capital so customers can buy more from the company. Other examples of marketing returns include: a. Close-cut returns, which are first quality products that the retailer or distributor has decided to no longer carry b. job-outs, where seasonal merchandise is returned after the season’s end c. Surplus goods un- purchase As retailer power in the channel continues to grow, manufacturers are being asked to bear an increased responsibility for taking back unwanted retail-level inventory. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as “fresh” product can command a higher margin than old product, and can be more competitive in the battle for consumer cedis. On the other hand, manufacturers get stuck with old inventory. Such product may have diminished market value, thus making profitable sales to other customers increasingly doubtful. The key to managing these returns is to try to avoid them. That doesn’t mean playing hardball with customers by simply refusing returns; rather, it means better matching demand and supply in the first place. 2. Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned in order to be reuse. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as tricycles ice containers also known as coreman equipment, and reusable containers. 3. Product Recalls: product recalls are a form of return that are usually initiated because of a safety or quality issue. Recalls can be voluntary or mandated by a government agency. They require more up-front planning than most other return types, and this planning is central to managing them effectively. Oct 26, 2016 Toyota Motor (tm, -0.32%) on Wednesday said it was recalling about 5.8 million cars at home and abroad over potentially faulty air bag inflators made by Takata 4. Environmental Returns: environment returns include the disposal of hazardous materials or abiding by environmental regulations. Environmental returns are different from other types of returns because they might include regulatory compliance that limits the set of options. Additionally, there are often stringent documentation and audit requirements 2.6.0 REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES The activities and alternatives in reverse logistics are similar and in a few occasions seen as the same. These activities and choices incorporate the accompanying: come back to the supplier, reuse, exchange, redistribution, rescue, repair, recondition, revamp, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal which may include either incineration or landfill. Each of these choices will now be depicted in further detail 2.6.1. RETURN TO THE SELLER: A product for which a customer wants a refund due to failure to meet the expectation of the customer, below the standard of performance. In this option, the organizations can return the product to the supplier for a full refund (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Returns to the seller can also be done when there was an incentive to order larger quantities than normal and if this excess product cannot be sold, and the buyer would be allowed to return these additional units 2.6.2 REUSE: Reuse essentially implies that the item can be utilized again for a reason like the one for which it was outlined or reused for another reasons (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reuse likewise includes repairing, revamping, washing or recouping utilized items. Reprocessed material is then used to deliver new items or to make results of lesser or esteem (Sarkis et al., 2010). There are a few alternatives in the reuse movement in reverse logistics in food and beverage industry in Ghana. 2.6.3. RESELL: In this alternative the item is sold once more. The organization has numerous choices as far as exchanging. Organization can either offer the items in general or in a crushed frame (Hugo et al., 2004). For example, they can sell the item to who would use it for occasional celebrations like birth date parties Christmas scrap merchants etc. where the costs may rely upon the state of item, the organization can offer items that are of less quality to a rescue organization that will regularly trade these items to outside business sectors (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). 2.6.4. REDISTRIBUTION: Redistribution means directing reusable items to a new market, or moving the item to potential new users (Krikke, 2009b; Yimsiri, 2009). In addition, redistribution can also take place where the organization plans to sell the recycled product, but it is essential for the organization to determine whether or not there is a market for the recycled products (Roy, 2003). 2.6.5. SALVAGE/ SCRAPE: Salvage is firmly identified with redistribution where an item is sold to an agent or some low-income client (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Nonetheless, rescue items have been utilized or damage, and can at no time in the future be sold as new. In salvage, items lose value in respect to the measure of utilization and the most troublesome piece of overseeing salvage is deciding its value. Any profitable materials that can be recovered will be salvage before the rest to the landfill 2.6.6. REPAIR/RECONDITION: According to Bhamra and Hon (2004) Repair is simply the “correction of specified faults of a product”. Repair/repackage relates to a moderate magnitude of corrections or repackaging which allows the product to be reused (Ji, 2008). Bhamra and Hon (2004) clarify reconditioning as the "means of giving back a utilized item to a tasteful working molding that might be mediocre compared to the first product". 2.6.7. REFURBISH: Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold. 2.6.8. RENOVATION (also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life. 2.6.9. REMANUFACTURING: is the reproduction of an item to specifications of the original manufactured item using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. Remanufacturing is a form of a product recovery process that differs from other recovery processes in its completeness: a remanufactured item should match the same customer expectation as the previous one. 2.6.10. RECYCLING: is the “process of converting the return or used products, components, and/or materials from the field, disassemble, separating them into categories of like materials, and processing into new form of products, components, and or materials” (Beamon, 1999). 2.6.11. DONATION: Sometimes organizations decide to give the returned products to charity organizations without receiving any compensation for these products. As a rule, organizations make use of this option because they pride themselves on being good corporate citizens and feel that it is important to support charities (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 2001). 2.6.12. DISPOSAL: Disposal is required for items that can't be reused for specialized or cost reasons. This would apply, say, to items rejected at the division level inferable from unreasonable repair prerequisites additionally to items without palatable market potential, say, attributable to out of date quality. The disposal done through the following two methods 2.6.12.1. INCINERATION. Is the “destruction of product that is harmful to human and other living things as well as the other products of the company through an electronic mean. 2.6.12.2. LANDFILLS the final disposal of solid waste on land (Enviro-Glossary) this involves controlled environments for the burying of waste (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Figure 2.1 illustrates the reverse logistics process and activities based on the above discussions Source: Mohammed shaik 2.7. RETURNS MANAGEMENT/ REVERSE LOGISTICS ELEMENTS, CONSTITUENT OR PRINCIPLES Returns management is that part of supply chain management that includes returns, reverse logistics, gatekeeping, and avoidance. This definition includes activities that are critical to supply chain management such as avoidance and gatekeeping. The management of the stream of materials is the concentration of this Chapter. As it will turn out to be clear, the different modalities for taking care of profits used by the exploration respondents can either positively or adversely affect an organization's main concern. What takes after is a definite examination of those elements characterized by the exploration group as key reverse logistics management components. 2.7.1. GATEKEEPING/ AVOIDANCE. This means making decisions to limit the number of items that are allowed into the reverse flow. Successful gatekeeping allows management to control and reduce returns without damaging customer service. Gatekeeping eliminates the cost associated with returning products that should not be returned or the cost of products returned to the inappropriate destination. The point of entry into the reverse flow is the best point to eliminate unnecessary cost and management of materials by screening unwanted returned merchandise. This Involve finding ways to minimize the number of return requests. It can include ensuring that the quality of product and user friendliness for the consumer is at the highest attainable level before the product is sold and shipped, or changing promotional programs to increase sales when there is no/little realistic chance that the product shipped to the customer will be sold. 2.7.2. COMPACT/ DISPOSITION CYCLE TIME Another basic component to fruitful reverse logistics management is having short disposition process durations. The organizations that is, best at dealing with their reverse logistics management procedures are capable at gatekeeping, as depicted previously. These organizations are additionally ready to diminish process durations identified with return item choices, development, and preparing. While most returned item does not age well, plainly many firms have not found how to turn away an extensive maturing process on their profits. Frequently, when material regularly returns to a dissemination focus, it is uncertain whether the things are: deficient, can be reused or restored, or should be sent to a landfill. The test of running a circulation framework in forward is troublesome; it is harder still for organizations to allot assets to deal with the framework in reverse logistics. Some portion of the trouble that organizations have in compacting disposition process duration is that there does not appear to be much reward for assuming liability and settling on an auspicious (favorable conditions) choice with reference to how item ought to be manner. Representatives experience issues settling on choices when the choice guidelines are not obviously expressed and special cases are regularly made. It is less demanding to pass the item back to the past stage in the channel, since that lessens both individual and organization chance. 2.7.3. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEMS Adequate and accurate information is necessary for effective management of returns. It also known amongst the most major issues that organizations confront in the execution of a reverse logistics operation is the deficiency of good data frameworks. Not very many firms have effectively robotized the data encompassing the arrival procedure. In light of the reaction of firms incorporated into the research, reverse logisticians appear to feel that about zero great reverse logistics management data frameworks are industrially accessible. Since data frameworks assets are typically extended as far as possible, those assets are generally not accessible for reverse logistics applications. To function admirably, a reverse logistics data framework must be adoptable. Notwithstanding the issues depicted above, robotization of those procedures is troublesome in light of the fact that, reverse management forms have such a variety of special cases. Reverse management is ordinarily a limit traversing (moving) process between firms or specialty units of a similar organization. Creating frameworks that need to work crosswise over limits adds extra unpredictability to the issue. For the retailer, a framework that tracks returns at store level is alluring. The framework ought to make a database at the store level so that the retailer can start following returned item and tail it to the distance back through the pipeline. Additionally, the stores can check whether the buyers are conferring to the rules and regulations of the reverse supply chain or taken an undue advantages to violate the system “return manhandle” or attempting to exploit the store. These advantages have been acknowledged on the grounds that, the firm has perceived the main issue effect of reverse management and doled out its assets to chip away at reverse management frameworks issues. 2.7.3. 1. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM TRANSACTION PROCESSING In a genuinely coordinated inventory network, everybody in the store network can track item as it pushes ahead through the channel. While there are not very many supply chains that truly work this well, there are virtually none that work backward (reverse). Most firms can't track returns inside their own company, considerably less some place outside of their firm due to lack of reverse logistics systems in place. 2.7.3.2. RETAILER When rules and policies regarding returns are not well understood by partners, then its management can be very difficult as partners may not be willing to accept responsibility for such things as damages and defect. Supply chain conflict usually results into poor coordination which is fundamental to supply chain efficiency. A retailer might need to reorder item from its supplier promptly, At that point, directing for handling or a capacity area inside the preparing center will be needed. A reverse warehouse management system may be required for this step (vender management systems) 2.7.3.3. MANUFACTURER The manufacturers will create a return authorization (RA) through of (VMS).This is regularly a manual procedure. RA could be created electronically, including a programmed verify whether the return ought to be approved. Next, the reasonable money related effect of the return could be produced. These capacities would be extremely useful in better overseeing returns. The following steps are to computerize pickup of item and a propelled dispatching in advance notice (advance shipment notification ASN) could be cut. After it is delivered, it is received. Presently, most manufacturers manually get returns. Once the material is received, a database is made for compromise. Since most manufacturers physically get material, this database is made gradually in the event that, it is made by any means. This drowsiness (snowlines) brings about moderating the compromise and the attitude of the profits. 2.7.3.4. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) STANDARDS Electronic data interchange (EDI) trade is the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to move information internal and external in an organized. PC retrievable information arranges that licenses data to be exchanged from a PC program in one area to a PC program in another area, without manual mediation. A case is the transmission of an electronic receipt from a provider's invoicing programming to a client's records receivable programming. This definition incorporates the immediate transmission of information between areas and partners transmission utilizing a mediator, for example, a correspondence arrange, and the trading of advanced stockpiling gadgets, such as attractive tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs. EDI is a standout amongst the most essential subsets of electronic business the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to encourage the data trade between two gatherings in a business exchange. The expectation of all electronic trade is to computerize business forms. A few exchanges can be totally paperless and move information starting with one PC application then onto the next PC application. By strict definition EDI falls under this kind of electronic business. Other electronic business exchanges are additionally paperless yet include manual mediation. Illustrations are Internet exchanges requiring one gathering to enter information physically. Electronic mail is another case of paperless however manual electronic trade. Now and then firms claim to do EDI when they are truly playing out a manual-to-PC exchange, for example, electronic request passage. referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic-Data-Interchange-EDI. 2.7.3.5. THE BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE IN REVERSE LOGISTICS 1. EDI was created to take care of the issues inalienable in paper based exchange handling and in different types of electronic correspondence. In tackling these issues, EDI is a device that empowers associations to reengineer data streams and business forms. Issues with the paper-based exchange framework are as follows: 2. Time delays; Postponements are created fundamentally by two components. Paper reports may take days to transport starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, manual preparing postponements are brought on by the need to key, record, recover, and look at information 3. Labor costs, in non-EDI frameworks, manual handling is required for information keying, report putting away and recovering, sorting, coordinating, accommodating, envelope stuffing, stamping, marking, and so forth. While robotized hardware can help with some of these procedures, most administrators will concur that work costs for archive preparing speaks to a critical extent of their overhead. When all is said in done, work based procedures are substantially more costly than non-work serious operations including PCs and broadcast communications 4. Errors, since data is keyed numerous circumstances and records are transported, put away, and recovered by individuals, non-EDI frameworks have a tendency to be mistake inclined Instability. This exists in two territories. To begin with, paper transportation and other manual preparing defers imply that the time the report is gotten is unverifiable. Once an exchange is sent, the sender does not know when the exchange will be gotten or when it will be handled. Second, the sender does not know whether the exchange has been gotten at all nor whether the recipient concurs with what was sent in the exchange. 5. High Inventories. In light of time deferrals and instabilities in non EDI preparing, inventories are frequently higher than would normally be appropriate. Lead times with paper handling are long. In an assembling firm, it might be for all intents and purposes difficult to accomplish an in the nick of time stock framework with the time postpones inalienable in non-EDI handling frameworks. 6. Data Access, EDI grants client access to an immense measure of itemized exchange information—in a non-EDI condition this is conceivable just with extraordinary exertion and time delay. Since EDI information is now in PC retrievable shape, it is liable to robotized handling and examination. Such data helps one retailer, for instance, screen offers of toys by model, shading, and client postal division. This empowers the retailer to react rapidly to changes in buyer taste 2.7.4 CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTERS/CENTRALIZED REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN The reverse supply chain, also called reverse logistics is usually fragmented between different actors. This leads to that no one has the overall responsibility. This then again leads to inefficient solutions and sub-optimization. But it is possible to identify the responsibility and where the initiative should be for managing the reverse flows through adapting a centralized control over the reverse supply chain. This is a system where one organization is responsible for collection, sorting and redistributing of return items. Centralist restructure of reverse supply chain Product returns Retailers/ resellers (Larsen, Schary, and Mikkola Philip: 2009) Above a model of a reverse supply chain is demonstrated. The point with this system is “that the gate-keeping activities of collection, inspecting and sorting are centralized within on organization. The same organization or another company at the up-stream levels of the supply chain may take on the physical processing.” (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola and Philip: 2009) 2.7.4.1. TYPICAL BENEFITS FROM A CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTER 1. Simplified store procedures, 2.Improved supplier relationships, 3. Better returns inventory control, 4. Improved inventory turns, 5.Reduced administrative costs, 6. Reduced store level costs, 7.Reduced shrinkage, 8. Refocus on retailer core competencies, 9.Reduced landfill, 10. Improved management information. (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola Philip: 2009). CRCs improve in-store in the following forms. 1. ACCESSIBILITY: One of the biggest advantages of having all of your products in one central location means you have easy access whenever you need it. Instead of trying to keep track of which products are where, you know, at all times, where your products are and how to access them. 2. EFFICIENT: The fact that all of your products are in one central location will make shipping your products much more efficient. Yes, sometimes your products will have to travel a little further than they would if you had multiple distribution centers. However, spreading your products throughout multiple distribution centers could mean delays in the shipping of some products over others, potentially leading to customer dissatisfaction. Multiple distribution centers also means there are multiple delivery routes, which can make the logistics of distribution even more congested. 3. REPORTING: Depending on what sort of business you’re in or what sorts of products you offer customers, you need to keep a close eye on what you have in stock. With a central distribution center, creating these types of reports becomes incredibly easy. You only have to go to one source rather than track down multiple reports from multiple distribution centers. 4. COSTS: You’ll save money in the long run since you won’t operate multiple distribution centers. You will also be able to cut down on employee costs because it does not take as much manpower to operate a single facility when compared to multiple centers. 5. CONSISTENCY: Sending returns back to a CRC brings about more reliable choices being made about item disposition. Since procedures are institutionalized (standard), mistakes are all the more effectively recognized and kept away from. The quality of returns processing generally improves as the firm moves to a centralized processing model. 6. SPACE UTILIZATION: Retail locations by and large have extremely restricted space in the store to give to returns. Normally, a retail location needs to commit however bigger space as could be expected to the offering floor for moving products only. A retailer does not have any desire to commit much space to hold non-offering returns. 7. LABOR SAVINGS: By unifying returns handling, a retailer limits the work required to finish the preparing of profits. One appropriately prepared worker at the CRC can by and large accomplish more in less time than the consolidated endeavors of a few client benefit work area representatives. 8. TRANSPORTATION COSTS: Many of the companies included in this research also found that their reverse logistics-related transportation costs decline due to consolidation. With a CRC model, a retailer or manufacturer can utilize “milk runs” to pick up returned goods. This way, a company can move more pallets and fewer boxes, increasing consolidation and thereby reducing freight costs. 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE. From the manufacturers ' perspective, the concentrated model can enhance client benefit. It can speed the compromise procedure, enhance return material approval (RMA) confirmation, and be a piece of creating critical administration data. As a result of union of profits, a producer can be more effectively wind up noticeably mindful of patterns in returns. Likewise, great reverse logistics processes can be a promoting technique to keep customers satisfy, preparing the exchange rapidly and give the client credit assembles and client faithfulness. A few firms trust that their returns system activities give them an extraordinary chance to satisfy the customers. Operating CRCs is a way of motivation from the firm to involve returns activities into the overall corporate strategic plan. It implies that somebody, for example, the general administrator of the CRC has the duty of ensuring that returns are handled properly 10. PROFIT IMPACT. Returns have a lower effect on the productivity of those organizations using outsourced brought together return focuses than those not utilizing outsourced unified return focuses. Organizations that utilized an in-house CRC found that reverse logistics management costs lessened profitability by 4.8 percent, while those organizations that utilized an third party to deal with their CRC discovered gainfulness decreased by 3.7 percent. 11. VISIBILITY OF QUALITY PROBLEMS. One of the focal points identified with working with CRC is that it winds up plainly less demanding to see quality issues as item streams in from a few retail locations. By following many return approvals, a firm can assemble an information stockroom that contains return reasons. On the off chance that a quality issue exists with an item, union of profits will highlight those quality troubles more rapidly than if returns spill in gradually from retail client benefit work areas. 2.7.4.2. SETBACKS 1. The totally brought together framework that deal with transportation expenses can increment since all items must be transported from the retail stores to the incorporated office. On the off chance that an item will be discarded, transporting it to a brought together office just to discard it expands costs, yet does not build incomes, in light of the fact that the item is as yet discarded. Be that as it may, the cost investment funds, diminished mien time, and enhanced incomes related with the execution of CRCs more than compensate for transportation costs brought about if the item is to be rejected In many cases, products that are going to be thrown away would not be processed at the retail store, anyway. 2. It is frequently hard to get mien choice consistency over a chain of stores for a few reasons. The representatives dealing with the client benefit work area may not be appropriately concerned prepared, new, or not truly worried about returns. 2.7.4.3. FORWARD AND BACKWARD An extensive number of firms trust that appropriation focuses won't function admirably in both forward and in reverse. While at first this conviction did not appear to be consistent to me, numerous conveyance focuses that would endeavor to effectively handle both forward and reverse production network streams will have much challenges. The issue might be connected more to center than to genuine ability. On the off chance that the appropriation focus administrator needs to settle on a decision between productively executing forward logistics versus, reverse logistics management the dissemination supply chain will concentrate on forward dispersion. In each circumstance, forward circulation administration is the top need of a conveyance focus that has new item stream as one of its duties. Few of the organizations trust that process duration preparing is contrarily influenced when one dispersion focus handles both forward and reverse logistics distribution. In dispersion focuses that have a predetermined number of dock entryways and dock space, item returning has a tendency to be misused and the handling of that material is frequently put off. This issue of using a dissemination focus to work both forward and in reverse is one reason that few firms are searching out for. It is troublesome for administrators to legitimize the cost of developing and staffing a huge building committed to taking care of "failures"–which is precisely how returned item is frequently seen inside the organization. A few firms concentrated under the examination can perform forward and reverse logistics operations in a similar office via precisely isolating both the stream of item and the workers. This division enables the reverse logistics management representatives to concentrate on the arrival stream and not be occupied by forward dispersion exercises. 2.7.5. ZERO RETURNS In a zero returns program, a provider tells its clients that no item will be acknowledged for return, “once ordered typically a Ghanaian adage which goes like “money paid is not refundable”. Rather, the provider will give the client a rebate off of the invoiced sum. Contingent upon the provider, the retailer either annihilates the item, or discards it in some other way. In another model being used in the PC business, the retailer gives back all items to a main issue on open return material approval (RMA). Usable item is paid for and sent to an outsider for restoration and disposition. Ineligible or unusable item is discarded in light of a predefined set of guidelines. In this model, the objective for the retailer is to enroll many producers as could reasonably be expected to take an interest, to empower incorporated getting, assessing, and installment handling. 2.7.5.1 2% TO 6% METHOD: An eminent method with zero merchandise exchanges is one that can be alluded to as the "2%/6%" method. In light of the impressive power that vast retailers have in the channel, it is hard for producers to proclaim a suitable returns stipend and stick to it. For instance, if a producer is pitching item to Kmart, and sets a six percent returns top, Kmart would consent to that top if the profits of the producer item don't surpass six percent. Truth be told, Kmart would likely be extremely cheerful if its real returns rate was two percent while it was accepting credit for six percent returns. Kmart would have the capacity to utilize the extra return top cash as a refund. In any case, if the producer sets a two percent return top and the real return rate is six percent, Kmart is not liable to agree to the producer's set return top rate. The retailer would rather demand that the producer cover the whole six percent returns. Due to the energy of the substantial retailers, most producers are not in a position to contend about the arrival top rate. This combined with the powerlessness of the producer to really control the demeanor of the item implies that, the retailer has fewer hazards than the producers from a zero returns program. A compelling zero returns programs require that both the purchaser and merchant genuinely comprehend what their real expenses are. 2.7.6. REMANUFACTURE AND REFURBISHMENT Thierry, et al. (1995) characterized five classifications of remanufacture and repair. These five classifications appeared in Table below repair, renovating, remanufacturing, cannibalization, and reusing. The initial three classes: repair, renovating, and remanufacturing, include item recondition and update. These alternatives vary as for the level of change. Repair includes minimal measure of push to overhaul the item, and remanufacture involves a lot. Cannibalization is basically the recuperation of a confined arrangement of reusable parts from utilized items (short item life cycle, because of the presentation of new item or else obsolete item). Reusing is the reuse of materials that were a piece of another item or subassembly. Remanufacturing and repairing of utilized item is on the ascent. Indeed, even NASA shuttle are being worked with remanufactured and renovated apparatuses. Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold 2.7.7. ASSET RECOVERY Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as drilling equipment, and reusable containers vehicles, bicycles, Coleman etc. 2.7.8. NEGOTIATION Bargaining making is a key portion of the reverse logistics process. In the forward stream of merchandise, costs are regularly set by brand administrators and promoting authorities. Reverse logistics frequently incorporates a haggling stage, where the estimation of returned material is consulted without valuing rules. These arrangements might be taken care of freely. Likewise, at least one of the arrangement accomplices frequently does not completely comprehend the genuine estimation of the returned materials, making open doors for specialist third parties to work on the edge. These third parties frequently utilize a portion of the most honed logisticians. This third party would demonstrate in a counseling ability to the essential members of the reverse network who are attempting to exchange responsibility for material back to the first source. Additionally, the third party can deal with the physical handling of the materials. Organizations, By and large, a similar third party does not deal with the esteem transactions and physical handling of the item for both the retailer and the upstream producer. There are exemptions to this govern, yet typically retailers and producers need distinctive third party to follow up for their sake to wipe out potential irreconcilable situation. 2.7.9. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgetary administration issues are the essential determinants in the structure of reverse logistics system and the way in which item is manned. Most firms need to enhance inner bookkeeping forms. Bookkeeping issues drive the activities of directors. In fan milk Ghana limited, in this research, bookkeeping issues drove stores manager to avoid typical return frameworks. In these cases, inner strategies and controls moved them to wasteful, wrong practices. Regularly, the cost of profits is charged against the business division. While this approach may for the most part be a sensible one, it can complicate reverse logistics processes. On the off chance that business work force are punished for returns, they will make a special effort to back off or crush the brisk acknowledgment of profits and the fast disposition of returned material. Issues identified with charge backs and main concern obligation regarding returns must be a key thought when building up a decent reverse logistics management framework. Dealing with what a provider is to be paid, when arrangements and advancements are figured in, can be a test. Be that as it may, returns are regularly the main issue in accommodating records receivables. Due to these difficulties, third parties have begun to specialize in handling accounting and reconciliation issues. 2.7.10. OUTSOURCING REVERSE LOGISTICS In general, outsourcing can be described as the transfer of activities that were previously conducted in-house, to a third party. Ellram and Billington (2001) see outsourcing primarily as: The transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party’. A wider definition is reported by NEVI (2000): Outsourcing means that the company divests itself of the resources to fulfil a particular activity to another company to focus more effectively on its own competence. The difference with subcontracting is the divestment of assets, infrastructure, people and competencies. Many organizations are outsourcing most or the greater part of their supply chain operations. Some of these organizations are extending their outsourcing to reverse logistics operations. These organizations are utilizing their reverse logistics outsource provider as a benchmark to help figure out what and how reverse activities ought to be performed, and how much those activities ought to cost. Regularly, these outsource providers perform reverse activities well, and their clients find that utilizing these administration firms lessen the regulatory bother of doing it without anyone's help. These outsource providers have progressed toward becoming masters in dealing with the reverse flow, and performing key value-added services, such as remanufacturing and renovating. Examples; coca cola bottling and Guinness Ghana limited contracting (outsourcing) it assets returns or (recovery), such as crates, bottles sorting and transportation to DHL and others. 2.8. USING REVERSE LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction happens when the organizations meet or outperform customer wants. Frankly, in light of current conditions, customers regularly contemplate having their perception, organization (benefit procedures) and support essentials met, and significantly less about how their suppliers do it. What customers genuinely need is to have their voices heard - and from that point forward, have their suppliers/providers truly make a move (i.e., they have to get happens). Most companies utilize their supply chain and reverse logistics management tool as market differentiators. The reason for existing is to keep customers so content with their product and activities, sometimes as of late, in the midst of, and taking after the main transport, that they remain devoted to their suppliers, repurchasing their items or possibly benefits again, and yet again, and yet again. Be that as it may, in the last mentioned, the assessment depends on the client's aggregate pre-and post-buy involvement with the organization's items, administrations and support after some time (i.e., this "signify customer understanding"). Firms that incorporate new advancements, for instance: UPC scanner labels, RFIDs, etc. Into their return management are all things considered more inclined to develop and keep up strong customer relation over the long time in the manner of their development enhanced limits. 2.8.1 The principal attributes that eventually separate one Logistics Company (and its reverse logistic process) from another may be classified basically as follows. 1. Dexterous/ Agile Adaptability, or how well (and how rapidly) the organization can react to changes in its client or showcase requests and, thus, build up the new logistics procedures, items and administrations required to meet (and surpass) the channel members. 2. Inventory Management, The capacity to oversee both the cost and the accessibility of inventories adequately to the need and wants of the members’ satisfactions 3. Cycle Times, the time it takes the company to satisfy members and related exercises, both on the inbound and return management sides; 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the utilization of the most proper, auspicious and precise measurements for measuring execution (and consumer loyalty) on a progressing premise and. 3. Market Position and Presence, The limit of the relationship to develop, keep up and propel its coordination (reverse management) capacities and qualities both to its present customers and to the business focus with everything taken into account. For instance, if a firm does not have the most ideal reverse logistics set up, either in light of the way that they are not the best methodology, or they don't exist inside the firm by any extend of the creative ability, then it will be basically unequipped for giving the administration and reinforce its customers require. Moreover, paying little notice to how reasonable and all around arranged the systems may be, if they don't move the customers' products out and back quickly enough, shopper dependability will toward the day's end raise its immense head. Finally, if the firm can't evaluate either its own specific pivot supply operations or its customers' appraisals of its execution, then it will never know decisively where it stays in the minds of its customers or how to upgrade its operations to meet customer wants. 2.8.1. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONNECTION; Statistical survey has demonstrated that clients trust the accompanying ascribes to be of the best significance for both forward and reverse logistics: 1. Elimination of slow or lost shipments 2.Elimination of shipment discrepancies 3.Improved profit margins through the use of optimization tools 4. Reduction of inventory carrying costs for the customer 5.Support for its customers' efforts to reduce inventory investments, 6.Significantly reduced product/part returns, 7.Improved customer service and satisfaction through: ? Improved delivery reliability ? Improved efficiencies in customers' shipping/receiving operations ? One version of the "truth" for dispute resolution 2.8.2. Regardless, for there is truly be a "bond," or "relationship," between the reverse logistics organizations provider and its customers, there must in like manner be the going with shared characteristics 1. Mutually high expectations for the success of the partnership 2. Mutual loyalty 3. Framework/capability for technical data/information exchange (e.g., EDI) 4. Willingness to share risks/provide assistance in critical situations 5. Willingness to negotiate/mediate differences of opinion/interpretation 6. Use of joint provider/user task forces/teams 7. Two-way, frequent communications and feedback channels 8. Joint performance monitoring and tracking (i.e., against pre-set goals) 2.9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RL PRACTICES AND PROFITABILITY OF THE COMPANY Every firm is most worried with its profitability; a standout amongst the most every now and again utilized instruments of money related proportion investigation is benefit proportions which are utilized to decide the organization's main concern and its arrival to its speculators (Jensen and Webster, 2009). Profitability measures are imperative to organization directors and proprietors particularly in deciding the monetary execution of a firm and basic leadership. Productivity proportions demonstrate an organizations general effectiveness and execution. Productivity proportions can be separated into two sorts: edges and returns. Proportions that show edge speak to the organizations capacity to make an interpretation of offers in cedis into benefits at different phases of estimation. Proportions that show returns speak to the company's capacity to gauge the general productivity of the firm in creating returns for its shareholders (Lim and Lovell, 2009). Reverse logistics process profoundly adds to benefit of firms; already most firms particularly producing firms lost a considerable measure of profit. Today, return management is seen by most firms as a method for recouping lost benefits. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004), profitability investigation is a vital method for surveying management activities and proposed changes to a company's strategic frameworks (Richey, Genchev and Daugherty, 2005). Profitability studies goes past aggregate cost assessment by joining the income effect of calculated exercises. For instance, an enhanced level of administration may achieve expanded income as clients react to larger amounts of returns. Such changes must be incorporated with calculated framework activities. Moreover, the effect of advantages, for example, stock levels, debt claims and settled calculated resources ought to be joined into an exhaustive productivity investigation approach (Mueller, 1990). Basic return management capacities can cost organizations millions in lost benefits because of harmed client connections and outer liabilities that could enormously affect their business. Successfully oversaw, notwithstanding, return management activities can empower associations to discover shrouded benefits, enhance consumer loyalty and limit liabilities. Fleischmann and Kuik (2003), is that the normal producer will spend9% to 15% of aggregate income on returns, as indicated by a 2010 Aberdeen Group think about. They are frequently ignorant of the effect returns administration can have on their clients, their assets or their primary concern. Actually, enhancing reverse activities operations can help organization improve income up to 5% of aggregate deals (Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro, 2004). Reverse logistic practices assume a vital part of recovering the estimation of returned items or legitimately discarding them. An open door with this request of greatness has affected many organizations to push the limits of incorporated Reverse logistic practices to discover better approaches to streamline operations, drive benefits, and enjoyment clients. On top of that, some ground breaking organizations have made new lines of income through their aptitude in giving incorporated Reverse logistic benefits that sliced through the boundaries (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). Fawcett et al. (1995) contend that Reverse logistic practices can incorporate picking up input to make upgrades and to enhance the comprehension of genuine purposes behind item give back, this assume an imperative part in the development of an association prompting money related, natural and societal increases. 2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK From the basis of this study, the independent variables affect the dependent variable, which is profitability of manufacturing firms (industry) in Ghana. To this extent therefore, increase in profitability in manufacturing firms in Ghana, depends on how effective the manufacturing firms implement reverse logistics practices. The conceptual model indicated below will be used to explain the reverse logistics practices and how they will be used to lead to an increase in profitability of fan milk Ghana limited. DRIVERS: PROCESSES: ACTIVITIES: ELEMENTS: RESULTS: 2.11. CONTRIBUTIONS ON REVERSE LOGISTICS By reviewing the reverse logistics literature, I found some topics that are commonly studied by researchers which are worth knowing in order to get a general idea of what has been studied and what hasn’t. I will do a brief review of these research topics in this section. Early reverse logistics researchers seem to be more focus on the large-scale view of reverse logistics; most of their work went into the whole process of reverse flow. For example, (Kim et. al., 2007) studied on BOM (bill-of-material) restructuring and the development of bills of material to serve to challenges of remanufacturing. His study suggested that the forecasting of sales has to be fine-tuned to reflect the uncertainty and variety of core returns for both salvaged and new parts. Traditionally, manufacturers did not feel responsible for their products after they were sold to the consumers. The greater part of utilized items were dumped or burned with significant harm to the earth. Today, consumers and authorities experts anticipate that, producers will diminish the waste created by their items. Therefore, waste management has gotten expanding consideration. Recently, attention has been moving towards recovery, because of the high costs and environmental burdens of disposal. Firms turn out to be increasingly in charge of gathering, destroying and updating of utilized items and bundling materials. (RevLog, 1998), Webb (1994) discussed the “green movement”, he indicated that more environmental concerns are influencing reverse logistics activities, e.g. packaging regulation, customer preferences, these environmental issues are becoming big concerns about reverse logistics. Some literature addressed the focus on reverse logistics concerning product handling, e.g. transportation, inventory management, and distribution. White (1994) described importance of reverse logistics for material handling; material handling contains moving, storing, protecting and controlling materials. He indicated that, in the material handling system, protection is the first priority. Dawe (1995) viewed return management as the best opportunity to differentiate customer service and create a competitive advantage for a firm. In order to take the opportunity, Dawe (1995) suggested that the most needed reengineering factors are return process and warehousing operations. Fuller & Allen (1996) asserts that, waste is an unavoidable by-product of resource-conversion processes in the economic system and materials are recycled as part of a resource program that supports sustainable development in efforts to manage waste. The use of information on systematic way will help reverse channel networks for recyclable materials, and the lobbying efforts to support the passage of a recycling bill. Some researcher put reverse logistics practice into quantitative models. For instance, Clegg, Williams, & Uzsoy (1995) presented a linear programming model to investigate the effects of recycling and remanufacturing on companies? operations. One of the more interesting and significant trends in supply chain management is the recognition of the strategic importance of reverse logistics operations. (Retzlaf and others, 1997) These reverse logistics operations support a variety of activities ranging from what is termed “green logistics,” i.e., “efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the supply chain” to activities that encompass product returns, repairs, and refurbishment. (Daugherty and others, 2001) Firms can use this model to analyze the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing operations (Clegg et al, 1995). Aside for the above example, there are many other quantitative models contributed by various researchers (Fleischmann et al., 1997; Guide Jr, Srivastava, & Spencer, 1996; Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). These models can be used to improve numerous dimensions of reverse logistics practices, such as, extending product life cycles, protecting product failures, etc... Another commonly studied topic of logistics research is the application of reverse logistics. Kroon &Vrijens (1995) focus their attention on the waste avoidance, they asserted that “a change in attitude towards the environment is an absolute necessity”, and they proposed a whole process of “collection, recycling and reuse of products and materials” (Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). Autry et al. (2001) looked at the catalog retailing industry, investigating how reverse logistics performance and satisfaction with reverse logistics service are influenced by factors such as firm size, sales volume, and internal/external assignment of disposition. They came up with practical results suggesting that “neither performance nor satisfaction was significantly influenced by location of responsibility for disposition” (Autry et al., 2001). A recent study conducted by Breen (2006) analyzed the customer compliance in reverse logistics practices. This cross-industry study reported that without customer compliance, efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be seriously undermined; the losses are reported up to 144 million pounds. These literatures cover a wide range of topics, but there are some issues left out due to the time and financial constraints and would have been useful if addressed. To be more specific, these research mostly focus on industrial level issues, majority of articles are short and lack the depth to demonstrate the level of integration necessary to implement reverse logistics to functional areas such as consumer market. Marketing research on the other hand, frequently focuses on the customer, tend to neglect operational, supply chain issues (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). This study is conducted in hope to redress these shortcomings by linking the reverse logistics and marketing issue in the context of end-customer. Source: Mohammed shaik 2.12. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND KNOWLEDGE GAP REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE. There are no exact writing incorporates the requirement for reverse logistics management practices and how it impacts benefit of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. No Previous reviews lay more concrete or concentrate on reverse logistics management and execution; the reviews did not address issues of reverse logistics management practices and gainfulness of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. The researcher therefore thinks that it’s important to address this issue by assessing reverse logistics management practices utilized by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana and the relationship between reverse logistics management practices, productivity (profitability) and environmental issues of by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana. Reverse logistics management practices is one of the courses in which beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana can use to build their benefit through making most extreme utilization of their waste items and materials to deliver esteem included merchandise and enterprises at a lessened cost which consequently will prompt to enhanced consumer satisfaction and hence loyalty, increase market share and revenue and ultimately profitability of the firms. Recent studies show that, there is no specific Performance variable that adds to return management. There is no definite framework of return management performance measurement. There are no studies on evaluation as to how the return management organizations can implement return management successfully. Strategy, process, capabilities and perspectives, and their sub criteria attributes are very important strategic issues to the top management; there is no evidence about feather research on that, less to talk about its importance on the return management in supply chain management CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is to provide a review of the literature relevant to the research goals of this thesis. It places a particular emphasis on works concerned with reverse logistics flow of products and services in manufacturing sector. It continues with the contributions other researchers made on reverse logistics. This is followed by discussions of reverse logistics drivers, processes and activities and elements in a manufacturing firm. In its final parts it discusses the role of reverse logistics on customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2.1. DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS 2.1.1 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management is essentially an integrative process that seeks to optimize the flows of materials and supplies through the organization and its operations to the customer. It is essentially a planning process and an information-based activity. Requirements from the marketplace are translated into production requirements and then into materials requirements through this planning process. It is now being recognized that, for the real benefits of the logistics concept to be realized, there is a need to extend the logic of logistics upstream to suppliers and downstream to final customers. This is the concept of supply chain management. Global logistics: (new directions in supply chain management)/ [edited by] Donald waters. — 6th edition. Logistics is characterized by the board of organizations administration as the procedure of arranging, executing, and controlling the proficient, financially savvy stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed products and related data from the purpose of inception to the point of utilization with the end goal of adjusting to client prerequisites. Logistics is for the most part the nitty gritty association and execution of an unpredictable operation in a general negotiating prudence, Logistics is the administration of the stream of things between the purpose of root and the purpose of utilization with a specific end goal to meet necessities of clients or organizations. The assets overseen in coordinations (Logistics) can incorporate physical things, for example, nourishment, materials, creatures, hardware, and fluids; and in addition dynamic things, for example, time and data. The coordinations of physical things generally includes the reconciliation of data stream, material dealing with, generation, bundling, stock, transportation, warehousing, returns and frequently security. In military science, coordinations is worried about keeping up armed force supply lines while upsetting those of the adversary, since an outfitted compel without assets and transportation is exposed. Military coordinations was at that point rehearsed in the antiquated world and as current military have a huge requirement for coordinations arrangements, propelled usage have been created. In military coordinations, coordinations officers oversee how and when to move assets to the spots they are required 2.1.2 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management is entire network of entities, internal and external members with the common interest of satisfying the final consumer. These members include supply of raw material, manufacturers who convert raw material into product, warehouse/ stores that stores the product transportation that convey the product to the distributor, retailer, as they intern transport the product to the final consumer. Supply chain underlie esteem chain in line of the fact that, without them, no producer can give consumers what they need, when and where they need it at the value they need it. Manufacturers compete with each other through their supply chains, and no level of change at the producers end can compensate for the insignificancies in any inventory network which limit the producer capacity to satisfaction. (Business dictionary) August 6, 2015 by Surbhi S 2.1.3 CONTRASTS BETWEEN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN 1. Logistics management is centered more around interior (expansive) physical development of items and materials, while SCM incorporates Logistics management notwithstanding having a general perspective of materials, data, budgetary and operational procedures. SCM concentrates on both interior and outside sources and plans for the ideal results. 2. Description; Logistics is the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling strategies for the proficient and powerful transportation and capacity of merchandise, including administrations and related data, yet store network from the purpose of root to the point of utilization. Store network management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, data, and funds as they move in a procedure from supplier to producer to distributer to retailer to the final consumer. 3. Relationship with different divisions, Logistics does not specifically takes an interest in other office or portions, (SCM) May take an interest in activities such as, research and advertising that may directly affect the store network 4. The primary point of Logistics is full consumer loyalty. Then again, the primary point behind Supply Chain Management is competitive edge. 5. Logistics is just a movement of Supply Chain Management. 6. (L) Part of Supply Chain Management, (SC) Part of Management of the Company Source: Surbhi S 2.1.4. CONCLUSION Logistics is an extremely old term, ideal from the earliest starting point used as a piece of the military, for the upkeep, stockpiling and transportation of outfitted drive individuals and items. Nowadays, this term is used as a piece of various circles, not especially in the military after the progression of Supply Chain Management. It has moreover been said that SCM is an alternative over Logistics Management and what's more SCM contains Logistics. Both are indivisible. Consequently they don't invalidate however supplement each other. SCM makes Logistics be in contact with the transportation, stockpiling and movement gathering. Distinction amongst logistics and supply chain management 2.1.5. REVERSE LOGISTICS reverse logistics is defined by The Council of Logistics Management as ``The way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, financially savvy stream of raw materials, in-progress stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of beginning with the end goal of recovering worth or appropriate transfer/ disposal``. Return Logistics is a part of logistics. Generally when logistics is mentioned just a single way is thought of. That is the point at which the merchandise leaves the organization and is transported to the client. Reverse Logistics handles issues, for example, remanufacturing, renovating, reusing or transfer to utilize assets adequately. Dowlatshahi (2000,) Reverse logistics is a procedure in which a producer deliberately acknowledges vitally sent items or parts from the point for utilization for conceivable reusing, remanufacturing or /disposal transfer." Another definition by Hawks (2006) is that reverse logistics is "the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, practical stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of starting point with the end goal of recovering worth or legitimate transfer or disposal." She at that point keeps on clarifying it as reverse logistics is the way toward moving products from their final destination with the end goal of catching wealth, or appropriate transfer/disposal. A third meaning of invert coordinations by Larsen, Schary Mikkola and Philip (2007) is that reverse logistics envelops a wide scope of exercises inside, and outside of, logistics including: item returns, source decrease, reusing, material conveyance, reuse of material, squander disposal/ transfer and revamping, repair and remanufacturing. 2.2. REVERSE FLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE Overseeing reverse logistics is presently an essential component of supply chain management and, sometimes, a benefit creating capacity. Reverse logistics is turning into an essential part of supply chain management. Many organizations that, already, did not give much time, vitality or attention to the administration and comprehension of reverse have started to focus. Firms have started to benchmark return operations with best in-class administrators. Industries that spend significant time in returns have seen interest for their administrations extraordinarily expanded. Developing enthusiasm for natural concern around the world, constrained organizations to take part in reverse management, for example, re-utilization of items and materials and reusing. For all intents and purposes, the vast majority of the organizations manage returns of some nature on account of issues, for example, promoting returns, harm or quality issues, overloads, renovating or remanufacturing. Handling returns present a great challenge for companies, while in many cases becomes a necessity for keeping customers satisfaction to a certain level. Reverse logistics operations in a supply chain may be considered as an introduction to innovative services of a company's portfolio. They may importantly affect an association's key execution as far as market viability, and additionally, inward cost effectiveness. Through reverse logistics management advancement, it might be conceivable to extend income through market development because of record customization, benefit enlargement and enhanced consumer loyalty. Reverse management is turning into a territory of upper hand. For example, the accompanying; 1. Positive normal impact: institutions acts, commitment laws," oblige creators to develop an approach for the social occasion and reuse of things toward the complete of their life cycle 2. Competitiveness progressions, proficient treatment of returns leads to reduced costs, increased profits and improved customer service. 3. Regaining esteem: effective reverse logistics can catch values from reusing items or parts or recycling materials 4. Financial matters (immediate and backhanded), return management activities can lead to addition to organizations through lesser utilization of raw materials, including value addition of product recovery processes, decrease in costs of disposal, and so forth. The company likewise gets engaged with return management processes because of competition in the marketing, rivalry, as well as vital issues (strategic), which may bring indirect benefits. A conservative estimate is that reverse logistics is a significant portion of some major companies and the economies as a whole, such as the U.S, China, England as well as middle income economies such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya etc. Logistics costs were estimated to account for approximately 8.5% of the U.S economy in 2013. However, the exact amount of reverse logistics activity is difficult to determine because most companies do not carefully track reverse logistics costs. For the firms studied in this research, reverse logistics accounted, on average, for approximately 4.25% of total logistics costs. Applying this mean percentage to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), reverse logistics costs are estimated to be approximately one half of a percent of the total U.S. GDP. (”Delaney estimates that logistics costs accounted for $921 billion in 1999”). Based on the Delaney respondent sample, is that reverse logistics costs amounted to approximately $39.1425 billion in 1999. The size, scope, and impact of reverse logistics vary by industry and channel position as well as the type of distribution channel. It is clear, however that, the overall amount of reverse logistics activity in the economy is large and still growing. Within specific industries, reverse logistics activities can be critical for the firm. Generally, when the value of the product is large, or the return rate is great, much more effort has to be spent on improving return processes. In 1998, the remanufactured auto parts market was estimated by the Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA) at $36 billion. Rebuilding and remanufacturing conserve a considerable amount of resources. As indicated by the APRA, around half of a car starter is recuperated in the reconstructing procedure. This may bring about sparing a few million gallons of unrefined petroleum, and also steel and different metals. The APRA gauges that crude materials spared by remanufacturing worldwide would fill 155,000 railroad autos yearly, a travel more than 1,100 miles in length. 2.3 DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS Past reviews recommended that reverse management can be influenced by different elements inside and outside an organization. Internal considerations involved senior management commitment, support and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities (Routroy, 2009), Outside elements incorporate weights from government (regulatory bodies), customers, suppliers and competitors (Carter and Ellram, 1998; Wu and Cheng, 2006), Broad audit of the accessible writing uncovers four essential drivers for reverse logistics: regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility and expected business benefits. For example, Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) and Daher et al. (2006) contended that the primary reasons that make firms endeavor to adopt reverse logistics are: 1. Environmental enactment, which force organizations to reclaim their flawed items, waste or discharges 2. Economic benefits of using returned products in the production process such as recapture of value and recovery of assets 3. Growing public environmental laws and awareness 2.3.1.0 EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS In the Ghanaian context, there are no previous studies found investigating the drivers for reverse logistics. However, related studies tend to emphasis the importance of the four drivers identified earlier. For instance, Raman and Peir (2006) conducted interviews with 10 SMEs in Malaysia and found that the main drivers for corporate social responsibility activities (waste recycling, paperless technology and use of biodegradable containers) are: professional code of conduct and ethics, customer pressures (for firms that are suppliers to venders/ MNCs), expected financial returns (especially from recycling), personal values of the owner and reputation. The following subsections illustrate each of the stipulated drivers for reverse logistics (regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility, expected business benefits and the internal drivers) and their roles in motivating firms to adopt reverse logistics initiatives. 2.3.1.1 REGULATIONS Business organizations are expected to adopt green purchasing in response to environmental regulations set by various regulatory institutions such as government bodies inside the country, regulations in other countries (mainly import and export companies),such as the fan milk coca cola and Guinness etc. in the industry in Ghana in addition to regulations set by the parent companies. Such regulations take the form of formal rules, laws, sanctions and incentives (Scott, 1995). Firms try to avoid potential costs, uncertainty and legal liabilities inherent in existing and anticipated regulations (Clemens and Douglas, 2006). Moreover, regulatory institutions may provide inducements for organizations to behave in a certain way. Inducement mechanisms include providing incentives to organizations for conforming to the demands of the agency that offers the inducement as well as punishment to offenders (Grewal and Dharwadkar, 2002). Currently, there are more strict legislations regulations in many countries, especially in Europe, that require business organizations to take responsibility for their products from production up to the final disposal which strengths producers to assume liability for their items toward the finish of their product life, and RoSH, which requires safe disposal or recycling of consumed products. Previous studies found that firms adopt reverse logistics initiatives in response to these regulations (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Ravi et al., 2005; Murphy and Poist, 2003; Blumberg, 1999; Carter and Ellram, 1998). In Ghana, there are no government regulations that directly require business organizations to undertake reverse logistics activities. Example is Automakers worldwide are ramping up the industry's biggest-ever recall after parts supplier Takata, under pressure from U.S. authorities, agreed earlier last year to declare more of its air bags as defective in the United States and other countries. fortune Toyota -recall-takata airbag cars 2.3.1.2 CUSTOMER PRESSURES Customers represent the major financial stakeholders that buy products and services of organizations. As such, customers can exert considerable pressures and may communicate goals of sustainability or environmental performance on these organizations. Past studies found that client weight is one of the significant drivers for reverse supply chain management. For example, Alvarez-Gil et al. (2007) found that clients have huge impact on final decision on reverse supply chain programmes in an organization. Similarly, Carter and Ellram (1998) emphasized the importance of pressures from consumers and intermediate customers such as retailers, in affecting reverse logistics activities. 2.3.1.3 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES The enthusiasm for reverse supply chain is relied upon to radiate not just from the outer condition (regulations, profit and customers) but additionally from the inside awareness of other's expectations of a firm towards the general public in which it exists. For SRM, such affectability is escalated by the continually expanding natural issues, for example, a worldwide temperature alteration and contamination. Such problems are expected to raise the awareness of business firms to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. The ordinary supply chains are based on a linear production paradigm, which relies on constant input of virgin natural resources and unlimited environmental capacity for assimilation of wastes (Geyer and Jackson, 2004).Therefore, through reverse logistics, a firm can be more socially responsible by considering minimizing its use of virgin materials and reducing the level of waste. Drumwright (1994), Murphy and Poist (2003) and Ravi et al. (2005) discovered that, social responsibility has significant impact on green supply chain initiatives (green purchasing and Social responsibility), Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse with more than 1,100 victims as a reasons of substandard materials used as well as the persistent flooding in Accra and resent fire outbreak at circle have led to widespread discussions about corporate social responsibility across global reverse supply chains. 2.3.1.4 EXPECTED BUSINESS BENEFITS Revenue (profit) and financial returns are the most vital objectives of business organizations. In this sense, every decision is evaluated based on cost–benefit criteria. Environmental initiatives are expected to come along with this general rule, i.e., a firm needs to expect business benefits from green initiatives before it engages in these initiatives. Expected business benefits demonstrate that organizations adopt reverse logistics activities, for example, reusing and reusing of items and materials, in foresight of the way that these activities can possibly enhance gainfulness of these organizations through cost minimization and expanded incomes (Stock et al., 2002). Indeed, even without prompt benefit, adopt reverse logistics activities might be useful to create potential immaterial advantages, for example, change of corporate picture (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Toffel, 2004). Past reviews found that normal business benefits effectively affect reverse logistics activities. (Blumberg, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005) Review about US`s economy shows that expected benefits, such as cost savings, marketing opportunities and financial returns from resale of return products, represent important drivers for green initiatives. For instance, Anbumozhi and Kanda (2005,) argued that “companies in Asia need to see business value to justify the cost associated with compliance to a formal environmental standard” Zulkifli and Amran (2006,) argued that, “companies in Malaysia follow corporate social responsibility practices if they can get something in return.” 2.3.2.0. INTERNAL FACTORS The Internal factors include top management commitment and support, and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities. 2.4.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES As the former discourse shows, there are numerous exercises that could fall under the heading of reverse logistics, as defined already. Of all, the reverse logistics obligations inside an organization, which exercises qualify as reverse logistics? 2.4.1.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES An autonomous reverse logistics process begins with the end client choice that the item has achieved the finish of its life, harms or defective and should be discarding, repair or replicate the materials (Blumberg, 2005). These processes may include asset recovery and recycling management, field and technical support, parts planning, returns and repair management and service parts logistics (Biederman, 2006). In general, return process activities can be grouped into three stages, namely (1) product collection and transportation, (2) inspection, separation and sorting, and (3) recovery and disposition also known as the reverse logistics operations. 2.4.1.1 PRODUCT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION Typical reverse logistics activities would be the processes a company uses to collect used, damaged, unwanted, or outdated products, as well as packaging and shipping materials from the end-user or the reseller. Once the item has been received by the company, the firm has other disposal options from which to choose. When a product is nearing its expiring date or damage, customers never put their attention on it rather discard it or returned to the company for refund. So collection is the base of the reverse logistic and analyzing it`s transportation network design of supply chain is initiated.’ the blend of various system framework is key to have the capacity to coordinate well among the different individuals from the store network of the organizations: provider, clients, Distribution Center, Cross-docking and last mile approach. The principle preferred standpoint of this system is decreasing cost, time and enhancing the responsiveness. And furthermore this is the ideal system for gathering item reversely. 2.4.1.2 INSPECTION, SEPARATION AND SORTING Returned products need to be classified according to quality and composition in order to determine the route in the reverse chain (Le Blanc, 2006 PWC, 2008). The inspection, separation and sorting stage occurs at the collection point where the products are inspected and sorted on the basis of their quality (Ji, 2008; Wang et al., 2010) and then separated, which entails splitting the flow of used products according to their disposal options (Yimsiri, 2009). This stage thus denotes all operations determining whether a given product is reusable and in what way (Yimsiri, 2009), Inspection, separation and sorting may encompass testing, disassembly, shredding and storage (Wang et al., 2010; Yimsiri, 2009). After this stage, the organization must determine the reuse manner of the product and classify it (Ji, 2008) in order to move to the next stages of reprocessing, recovery and disposition. 2.4.1.3 RECOVERY AND DISPOSITION Recovery is the process of regain or discovering value from the returned product, components and materials (Le Blanc, 2006). Product disposition refers to the different ways organizations attempt to recover the costs of products that are being returned (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition involves putting the product back into inventory or temporary storage, repackaging, repair, refurbishing or remanufacturing (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition thus refers to the determination of ultimate outcome for the product (Genchev et al., 2010). Ultimately, “final disposition” refers to the exit route returned products finally take (Bernon et al., 2011). At the end of these processes, numerous disposition options are available to organizations. These reverse logistics disposition options form part of the activities and processes in reverse logistics. 2.5.0. TYPES/RATIONALE FOR RETURENS Understanding why returns occur helps identify opportunities for improving supply chain processes and decision-making.There are many types of returns that need to be managed, each of which poses unique challenges. Based on The Global Supply Chain forum, we group returns into five categories: consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, product recalls and environmental returns. 1. Consumer Returns: consumer returns product defects are generally the largest category of returns. Many companies have liberal returns policies that make it easy for consumers to return products. This is based on the belief that consumers will continue to purchase from a retailer with liberal returns policies which increase the retailer’s revenue. Main examples include: Defective returns: At the consumer or end-customer level, defective product comes back after purchase and some level of use. Such returns could indicate quality problems that need to be resolved in manufacturing or distribution. 2. No fault found’ returns: But many times firms find no defects upon inspection of returned products. These no fault found returns may be indicative of customers not understanding how to use the product appropriately, not being able to properly install the product, or simply finding that the product was not what they were expecting. These returns signal the need to re-engineer the product or communicate more effectively to customers about what to expect and how to use/install the product. Understanding the reasons for defective returns and no fault found returns requires the involvement of a cross-functional team that might include product design, engineering, packaging, manufacturing, distribution and marketing. The goal is to identify why these types of returns are happening and work to reduce their volume. 1. Marketing Returns: marketing returns consist of products returned from a position forward in the supply chain. At the retail or intermediary level, returns often come back due to slow-moving stock, quality issues, end-of-season inventory adjustments, or as a means to release capital so customers can buy more from the company. Other examples of marketing returns include: a. Close-cut returns, which are first quality products that the retailer or distributor has decided to no longer carry b. job-outs, where seasonal merchandise is returned after the season’s end c. Surplus goods un- purchase As retailer power in the channel continues to grow, manufacturers are being asked to bear an increased responsibility for taking back unwanted retail-level inventory. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as “fresh” product can command a higher margin than old product, and can be more competitive in the battle for consumer cedis. On the other hand, manufacturers get stuck with old inventory. Such product may have diminished market value, thus making profitable sales to other customers increasingly doubtful. The key to managing these returns is to try to avoid them. That doesn’t mean playing hardball with customers by simply refusing returns; rather, it means better matching demand and supply in the first place. 2. Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned in order to be reuse. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as tricycles ice containers also known as coreman equipment, and reusable containers. 3. Product Recalls: product recalls are a form of return that are usually initiated because of a safety or quality issue. Recalls can be voluntary or mandated by a government agency. They require more up-front planning than most other return types, and this planning is central to managing them effectively. Oct 26, 2016 Toyota Motor (tm, -0.32%) on Wednesday said it was recalling about 5.8 million cars at home and abroad over potentially faulty air bag inflators made by Takata 4. Environmental Returns: environment returns include the disposal of hazardous materials or abiding by environmental regulations. Environmental returns are different from other types of returns because they might include regulatory compliance that limits the set of options. Additionally, there are often stringent documentation and audit requirements 2.6.0 REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES The activities and alternatives in reverse logistics are similar and in a few occasions seen as the same. These activities and choices incorporate the accompanying: come back to the supplier, reuse, exchange, redistribution, rescue, repair, recondition, revamp, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal which may include either incineration or landfill. Each of these choices will now be depicted in further detail 2.6.1. RETURN TO THE SELLER: A product for which a customer wants a refund due to failure to meet the expectation of the customer, below the standard of performance. In this option, the organizations can return the product to the supplier for a full refund (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Returns to the seller can also be done when there was an incentive to order larger quantities than normal and if this excess product cannot be sold, and the buyer would be allowed to return these additional units 2.6.2 REUSE: Reuse essentially implies that the item can be utilized again for a reason like the one for which it was outlined or reused for another reasons (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reuse likewise includes repairing, revamping, washing or recouping utilized items. Reprocessed material is then used to deliver new items or to make results of lesser or esteem (Sarkis et al., 2010). There are a few alternatives in the reuse movement in reverse logistics in food and beverage industry in Ghana. 2.6.3. RESELL: In this alternative the item is sold once more. The organization has numerous choices as far as exchanging. Organization can either offer the items in general or in a crushed frame (Hugo et al., 2004). For example, they can sell the item to who would use it for occasional celebrations like birth date parties Christmas scrap merchants etc. where the costs may rely upon the state of item, the organization can offer items that are of less quality to a rescue organization that will regularly trade these items to outside business sectors (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). 2.6.4. REDISTRIBUTION: Redistribution means directing reusable items to a new market, or moving the item to potential new users (Krikke, 2009b; Yimsiri, 2009). In addition, redistribution can also take place where the organization plans to sell the recycled product, but it is essential for the organization to determine whether or not there is a market for the recycled products (Roy, 2003). 2.6.5. SALVAGE/ SCRAPE: Salvage is firmly identified with redistribution where an item is sold to an agent or some low-income client (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Nonetheless, rescue items have been utilized or damage, and can at no time in the future be sold as new. In salvage, items lose value in respect to the measure of utilization and the most troublesome piece of overseeing salvage is deciding its value. Any profitable materials that can be recovered will be salvage before the rest to the landfill 2.6.6. REPAIR/RECONDITION: According to Bhamra and Hon (2004) Repair is simply the “correction of specified faults of a product”. Repair/repackage relates to a moderate magnitude of corrections or repackaging which allows the product to be reused (Ji, 2008). Bhamra and Hon (2004) clarify reconditioning as the "means of giving back a utilized item to a tasteful working molding that might be mediocre compared to the first product". 2.6.7. REFURBISH: Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold. 2.6.8. RENOVATION (also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life. 2.6.9. REMANUFACTURING: is the reproduction of an item to specifications of the original manufactured item using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. Remanufacturing is a form of a product recovery process that differs from other recovery processes in its completeness: a remanufactured item should match the same customer expectation as the previous one. 2.6.10. RECYCLING: is the “process of converting the return or used products, components, and/or materials from the field, disassemble, separating them into categories of like materials, and processing into new form of products, components, and or materials” (Beamon, 1999). 2.6.11. DONATION: Sometimes organizations decide to give the returned products to charity organizations without receiving any compensation for these products. As a rule, organizations make use of this option because they pride themselves on being good corporate citizens and feel that it is important to support charities (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 2001). 2.6.12. DISPOSAL: Disposal is required for items that can't be reused for specialized or cost reasons. This would apply, say, to items rejected at the division level inferable from unreasonable repair prerequisites additionally to items without palatable market potential, say, attributable to out of date quality. The disposal done through the following two methods 2.6.12.1. INCINERATION. Is the “destruction of product that is harmful to human and other living things as well as the other products of the company through an electronic mean. 2.6.12.2. LANDFILLS the final disposal of solid waste on land (Enviro-Glossary) this involves controlled environments for the burying of waste (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Figure 2.1 illustrates the reverse logistics process and activities based on the above discussions Source: Mohammed shaik 2.7. RETURNS MANAGEMENT/ REVERSE LOGISTICS ELEMENTS, CONSTITUENT OR PRINCIPLES Returns management is that part of supply chain management that includes returns, reverse logistics, gatekeeping, and avoidance. This definition includes activities that are critical to supply chain management such as avoidance and gatekeeping. The management of the stream of materials is the concentration of this Chapter. As it will turn out to be clear, the different modalities for taking care of profits used by the exploration respondents can either positively or adversely affect an organization's main concern. What takes after is a definite examination of those elements characterized by the exploration group as key reverse logistics management components. 2.7.1. GATEKEEPING/ AVOIDANCE. This means making decisions to limit the number of items that are allowed into the reverse flow. Successful gatekeeping allows management to control and reduce returns without damaging customer service. Gatekeeping eliminates the cost associated with returning products that should not be returned or the cost of products returned to the inappropriate destination. The point of entry into the reverse flow is the best point to eliminate unnecessary cost and management of materials by screening unwanted returned merchandise. This Involve finding ways to minimize the number of return requests. It can include ensuring that the quality of product and user friendliness for the consumer is at the highest attainable level before the product is sold and shipped, or changing promotional programs to increase sales when there is no/little realistic chance that the product shipped to the customer will be sold. 2.7.2. COMPACT/ DISPOSITION CYCLE TIME Another basic component to fruitful reverse logistics management is having short disposition process durations. The organizations that is, best at dealing with their reverse logistics management procedures are capable at gatekeeping, as depicted previously. These organizations are additionally ready to diminish process durations identified with return item choices, development, and preparing. While most returned item does not age well, plainly many firms have not found how to turn away an extensive maturing process on their profits. Frequently, when material regularly returns to a dissemination focus, it is uncertain whether the things are: deficient, can be reused or restored, or should be sent to a landfill. The test of running a circulation framework in forward is troublesome; it is harder still for organizations to allot assets to deal with the framework in reverse logistics. Some portion of the trouble that organizations have in compacting disposition process duration is that there does not appear to be much reward for assuming liability and settling on an auspicious (favorable conditions) choice with reference to how item ought to be manner. Representatives experience issues settling on choices when the choice guidelines are not obviously expressed and special cases are regularly made. It is less demanding to pass the item back to the past stage in the channel, since that lessens both individual and organization chance. 2.7.3. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEMS Adequate and accurate information is necessary for effective management of returns. It also known amongst the most major issues that organizations confront in the execution of a reverse logistics operation is the deficiency of good data frameworks. Not very many firms have effectively robotized the data encompassing the arrival procedure. In light of the reaction of firms incorporated into the research, reverse logisticians appear to feel that about zero great reverse logistics management data frameworks are industrially accessible. Since data frameworks assets are typically extended as far as possible, those assets are generally not accessible for reverse logistics applications. To function admirably, a reverse logistics data framework must be adoptable. Notwithstanding the issues depicted above, robotization of those procedures is troublesome in light of the fact that, reverse management forms have such a variety of special cases. Reverse management is ordinarily a limit traversing (moving) process between firms or specialty units of a similar organization. Creating frameworks that need to work crosswise over limits adds extra unpredictability to the issue. For the retailer, a framework that tracks returns at store level is alluring. The framework ought to make a database at the store level so that the retailer can start following returned item and tail it to the distance back through the pipeline. Additionally, the stores can check whether the buyers are conferring to the rules and regulations of the reverse supply chain or taken an undue advantages to violate the system “return manhandle” or attempting to exploit the store. These advantages have been acknowledged on the grounds that, the firm has perceived the main issue effect of reverse management and doled out its assets to chip away at reverse management frameworks issues. 2.7.3. 1. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM TRANSACTION PROCESSING In a genuinely coordinated inventory network, everybody in the store network can track item as it pushes ahead through the channel. While there are not very many supply chains that truly work this well, there are virtually none that work backward (reverse). Most firms can't track returns inside their own company, considerably less some place outside of their firm due to lack of reverse logistics systems in place. 2.7.3.2. RETAILER When rules and policies regarding returns are not well understood by partners, then its management can be very difficult as partners may not be willing to accept responsibility for such things as damages and defect. Supply chain conflict usually results into poor coordination which is fundamental to supply chain efficiency. A retailer might need to reorder item from its supplier promptly, At that point, directing for handling or a capacity area inside the preparing center will be needed. A reverse warehouse management system may be required for this step (vender management systems) 2.7.3.3. MANUFACTURER The manufacturers will create a return authorization (RA) through of (VMS).This is regularly a manual procedure. RA could be created electronically, including a programmed verify whether the return ought to be approved. Next, the reasonable money related effect of the return could be produced. These capacities would be extremely useful in better overseeing returns. The following steps are to computerize pickup of item and a propelled dispatching in advance notice (advance shipment notification ASN) could be cut. After it is delivered, it is received. Presently, most manufacturers manually get returns. Once the material is received, a database is made for compromise. Since most manufacturers physically get material, this database is made gradually in the event that, it is made by any means. This drowsiness (snowlines) brings about moderating the compromise and the attitude of the profits. 2.7.3.4. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) STANDARDS Electronic data interchange (EDI) trade is the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to move information internal and external in an organized. PC retrievable information arranges that licenses data to be exchanged from a PC program in one area to a PC program in another area, without manual mediation. A case is the transmission of an electronic receipt from a provider's invoicing programming to a client's records receivable programming. This definition incorporates the immediate transmission of information between areas and partners transmission utilizing a mediator, for example, a correspondence arrange, and the trading of advanced stockpiling gadgets, such as attractive tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs. EDI is a standout amongst the most essential subsets of electronic business the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to encourage the data trade between two gatherings in a business exchange. The expectation of all electronic trade is to computerize business forms. A few exchanges can be totally paperless and move information starting with one PC application then onto the next PC application. By strict definition EDI falls under this kind of electronic business. Other electronic business exchanges are additionally paperless yet include manual mediation. Illustrations are Internet exchanges requiring one gathering to enter information physically. Electronic mail is another case of paperless however manual electronic trade. Now and then firms claim to do EDI when they are truly playing out a manual-to-PC exchange, for example, electronic request passage. referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic-Data-Interchange-EDI. 2.7.3.5. THE BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE IN REVERSE LOGISTICS 1. EDI was created to take care of the issues inalienable in paper based exchange handling and in different types of electronic correspondence. In tackling these issues, EDI is a device that empowers associations to reengineer data streams and business forms. Issues with the paper-based exchange framework are as follows: 2. Time delays; Postponements are created fundamentally by two components. Paper reports may take days to transport starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, manual preparing postponements are brought on by the need to key, record, recover, and look at information 3. Labor costs, in non-EDI frameworks, manual handling is required for information keying, report putting away and recovering, sorting, coordinating, accommodating, envelope stuffing, stamping, marking, and so forth. While robotized hardware can help with some of these procedures, most administrators will concur that work costs for archive preparing speaks to a critical extent of their overhead. When all is said in done, work based procedures are substantially more costly than non-work serious operations including PCs and broadcast communications 4. Errors, since data is keyed numerous circumstances and records are transported, put away, and recovered by individuals, non-EDI frameworks have a tendency to be mistake inclined Instability. This exists in two territories. To begin with, paper transportation and other manual preparing defers imply that the time the report is gotten is unverifiable. Once an exchange is sent, the sender does not know when the exchange will be gotten or when it will be handled. Second, the sender does not know whether the exchange has been gotten at all nor whether the recipient concurs with what was sent in the exchange. 5. High Inventories. In light of time deferrals and instabilities in non EDI preparing, inventories are frequently higher than would normally be appropriate. Lead times with paper handling are long. In an assembling firm, it might be for all intents and purposes difficult to accomplish an in the nick of time stock framework with the time postpones inalienable in non-EDI handling frameworks. 6. Data Access, EDI grants client access to an immense measure of itemized exchange information—in a non-EDI condition this is conceivable just with extraordinary exertion and time delay. Since EDI information is now in PC retrievable shape, it is liable to robotized handling and examination. Such data helps one retailer, for instance, screen offers of toys by model, shading, and client postal division. This empowers the retailer to react rapidly to changes in buyer taste 2.7.4 CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTERS/CENTRALIZED REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN The reverse supply chain, also called reverse logistics is usually fragmented between different actors. This leads to that no one has the overall responsibility. This then again leads to inefficient solutions and sub-optimization. But it is possible to identify the responsibility and where the initiative should be for managing the reverse flows through adapting a centralized control over the reverse supply chain. This is a system where one organization is responsible for collection, sorting and redistributing of return items. Centralist restructure of reverse supply chain Product returns Retailers/ resellers (Larsen, Schary, and Mikkola Philip: 2009) Above a model of a reverse supply chain is demonstrated. The point with this system is “that the gate-keeping activities of collection, inspecting and sorting are centralized within on organization. The same organization or another company at the up-stream levels of the supply chain may take on the physical processing.” (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola and Philip: 2009) 2.7.4.1. TYPICAL BENEFITS FROM A CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTER 1. Simplified store procedures, 2.Improved supplier relationships, 3. Better returns inventory control, 4. Improved inventory turns, 5.Reduced administrative costs, 6. Reduced store level costs, 7.Reduced shrinkage, 8. Refocus on retailer core competencies, 9.Reduced landfill, 10. Improved management information. (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola Philip: 2009). CRCs improve in-store in the following forms. 1. ACCESSIBILITY: One of the biggest advantages of having all of your products in one central location means you have easy access whenever you need it. Instead of trying to keep track of which products are where, you know, at all times, where your products are and how to access them. 2. EFFICIENT: The fact that all of your products are in one central location will make shipping your products much more efficient. Yes, sometimes your products will have to travel a little further than they would if you had multiple distribution centers. However, spreading your products throughout multiple distribution centers could mean delays in the shipping of some products over others, potentially leading to customer dissatisfaction. Multiple distribution centers also means there are multiple delivery routes, which can make the logistics of distribution even more congested. 3. REPORTING: Depending on what sort of business you’re in or what sorts of products you offer customers, you need to keep a close eye on what you have in stock. With a central distribution center, creating these types of reports becomes incredibly easy. You only have to go to one source rather than track down multiple reports from multiple distribution centers. 4. COSTS: You’ll save money in the long run since you won’t operate multiple distribution centers. You will also be able to cut down on employee costs because it does not take as much manpower to operate a single facility when compared to multiple centers. 5. CONSISTENCY: Sending returns back to a CRC brings about more reliable choices being made about item disposition. Since procedures are institutionalized (standard), mistakes are all the more effectively recognized and kept away from. The quality of returns processing generally improves as the firm moves to a centralized processing model. 6. SPACE UTILIZATION: Retail locations by and large have extremely restricted space in the store to give to returns. Normally, a retail location needs to commit however bigger space as could be expected to the offering floor for moving products only. A retailer does not have any desire to commit much space to hold non-offering returns. 7. LABOR SAVINGS: By unifying returns handling, a retailer limits the work required to finish the preparing of profits. One appropriately prepared worker at the CRC can by and large accomplish more in less time than the consolidated endeavors of a few client benefit work area representatives. 8. TRANSPORTATION COSTS: Many of the companies included in this research also found that their reverse logistics-related transportation costs decline due to consolidation. With a CRC model, a retailer or manufacturer can utilize “milk runs” to pick up returned goods. This way, a company can move more pallets and fewer boxes, increasing consolidation and thereby reducing freight costs. 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE. From the manufacturers ' perspective, the concentrated model can enhance client benefit. It can speed the compromise procedure, enhance return material approval (RMA) confirmation, and be a piece of creating critical administration data. As a result of union of profits, a producer can be more effectively wind up noticeably mindful of patterns in returns. Likewise, great reverse logistics processes can be a promoting technique to keep customers satisfy, preparing the exchange rapidly and give the client credit assembles and client faithfulness. A few firms trust that their returns system activities give them an extraordinary chance to satisfy the customers. Operating CRCs is a way of motivation from the firm to involve returns activities into the overall corporate strategic plan. It implies that somebody, for example, the general administrator of the CRC has the duty of ensuring that returns are handled properly 10. PROFIT IMPACT. Returns have a lower effect on the productivity of those organizations using outsourced brought together return focuses than those not utilizing outsourced unified return focuses. Organizations that utilized an in-house CRC found that reverse logistics management costs lessened profitability by 4.8 percent, while those organizations that utilized an third party to deal with their CRC discovered gainfulness decreased by 3.7 percent. 11. VISIBILITY OF QUALITY PROBLEMS. One of the focal points identified with working with CRC is that it winds up plainly less demanding to see quality issues as item streams in from a few retail locations. By following many return approvals, a firm can assemble an information stockroom that contains return reasons. On the off chance that a quality issue exists with an item, union of profits will highlight those quality troubles more rapidly than if returns spill in gradually from retail client benefit work areas. 2.7.4.2. SETBACKS 1. The totally brought together framework that deal with transportation expenses can increment since all items must be transported from the retail stores to the incorporated office. On the off chance that an item will be discarded, transporting it to a brought together office just to discard it expands costs, yet does not build incomes, in light of the fact that the item is as yet discarded. Be that as it may, the cost investment funds, diminished mien time, and enhanced incomes related with the execution of CRCs more than compensate for transportation costs brought about if the item is to be rejected In many cases, products that are going to be thrown away would not be processed at the retail store, anyway. 2. It is frequently hard to get mien choice consistency over a chain of stores for a few reasons. The representatives dealing with the client benefit work area may not be appropriately concerned prepared, new, or not truly worried about returns. 2.7.4.3. FORWARD AND BACKWARD An extensive number of firms trust that appropriation focuses won't function admirably in both forward and in reverse. While at first this conviction did not appear to be consistent to me, numerous conveyance focuses that would endeavor to effectively handle both forward and reverse production network streams will have much challenges. The issue might be connected more to center than to genuine ability. On the off chance that the appropriation focus administrator needs to settle on a decision between productively executing forward logistics versus, reverse logistics management the dissemination supply chain will concentrate on forward dispersion. In each circumstance, forward circulation administration is the top need of a conveyance focus that has new item stream as one of its duties. Few of the organizations trust that process duration preparing is contrarily influenced when one dispersion focus handles both forward and reverse logistics distribution. In dispersion focuses that have a predetermined number of dock entryways and dock space, item returning has a tendency to be misused and the handling of that material is frequently put off. This issue of using a dissemination focus to work both forward and in reverse is one reason that few firms are searching out for. It is troublesome for administrators to legitimize the cost of developing and staffing a huge building committed to taking care of "failures"–which is precisely how returned item is frequently seen inside the organization. A few firms concentrated under the examination can perform forward and reverse logistics operations in a similar office via precisely isolating both the stream of item and the workers. This division enables the reverse logistics management representatives to concentrate on the arrival stream and not be occupied by forward dispersion exercises. 2.7.5. ZERO RETURNS In a zero returns program, a provider tells its clients that no item will be acknowledged for return, “once ordered typically a Ghanaian adage which goes like “money paid is not refundable”. Rather, the provider will give the client a rebate off of the invoiced sum. Contingent upon the provider, the retailer either annihilates the item, or discards it in some other way. In another model being used in the PC business, the retailer gives back all items to a main issue on open return material approval (RMA). Usable item is paid for and sent to an outsider for restoration and disposition. Ineligible or unusable item is discarded in light of a predefined set of guidelines. In this model, the objective for the retailer is to enroll many producers as could reasonably be expected to take an interest, to empower incorporated getting, assessing, and installment handling. 2.7.5.1 2% TO 6% METHOD: An eminent method with zero merchandise exchanges is one that can be alluded to as the "2%/6%" method. In light of the impressive power that vast retailers have in the channel, it is hard for producers to proclaim a suitable returns stipend and stick to it. For instance, if a producer is pitching item to Kmart, and sets a six percent returns top, Kmart would consent to that top if the profits of the producer item don't surpass six percent. Truth be told, Kmart would likely be extremely cheerful if its real returns rate was two percent while it was accepting credit for six percent returns. Kmart would have the capacity to utilize the extra return top cash as a refund. In any case, if the producer sets a two percent return top and the real return rate is six percent, Kmart is not liable to agree to the producer's set return top rate. The retailer would rather demand that the producer cover the whole six percent returns. Due to the energy of the substantial retailers, most producers are not in a position to contend about the arrival top rate. This combined with the powerlessness of the producer to really control the demeanor of the item implies that, the retailer has fewer hazards than the producers from a zero returns program. A compelling zero returns programs require that both the purchaser and merchant genuinely comprehend what their real expenses are. 2.7.6. REMANUFACTURE AND REFURBISHMENT Thierry, et al. (1995) characterized five classifications of remanufacture and repair. These five classifications appeared in Table below repair, renovating, remanufacturing, cannibalization, and reusing. The initial three classes: repair, renovating, and remanufacturing, include item recondition and update. These alternatives vary as for the level of change. Repair includes minimal measure of push to overhaul the item, and remanufacture involves a lot. Cannibalization is basically the recuperation of a confined arrangement of reusable parts from utilized items (short item life cycle, because of the presentation of new item or else obsolete item). Reusing is the reuse of materials that were a piece of another item or subassembly. Remanufacturing and repairing of utilized item is on the ascent. Indeed, even NASA shuttle are being worked with remanufactured and renovated apparatuses. Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold 2.7.7. ASSET RECOVERY Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as drilling equipment, and reusable containers vehicles, bicycles, Coleman etc. 2.7.8. NEGOTIATION Bargaining making is a key portion of the reverse logistics process. In the forward stream of merchandise, costs are regularly set by brand administrators and promoting authorities. Reverse logistics frequently incorporates a haggling stage, where the estimation of returned material is consulted without valuing rules. These arrangements might be taken care of freely. Likewise, at least one of the arrangement accomplices frequently does not completely comprehend the genuine estimation of the returned materials, making open doors for specialist third parties to work on the edge. These third parties frequently utilize a portion of the most honed logisticians. This third party would demonstrate in a counseling ability to the essential members of the reverse network who are attempting to exchange responsibility for material back to the first source. Additionally, the third party can deal with the physical handling of the materials. Organizations, By and large, a similar third party does not deal with the esteem transactions and physical handling of the item for both the retailer and the upstream producer. There are exemptions to this govern, yet typically retailers and producers need distinctive third party to follow up for their sake to wipe out potential irreconcilable situation. 2.7.9. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgetary administration issues are the essential determinants in the structure of reverse logistics system and the way in which item is manned. Most firms need to enhance inner bookkeeping forms. Bookkeeping issues drive the activities of directors. In fan milk Ghana limited, in this research, bookkeeping issues drove stores manager to avoid typical return frameworks. In these cases, inner strategies and controls moved them to wasteful, wrong practices. Regularly, the cost of profits is charged against the business division. While this approach may for the most part be a sensible one, it can complicate reverse logistics processes. On the off chance that business work force are punished for returns, they will make a special effort to back off or crush the brisk acknowledgment of profits and the fast disposition of returned material. Issues identified with charge backs and main concern obligation regarding returns must be a key thought when building up a decent reverse logistics management framework. Dealing with what a provider is to be paid, when arrangements and advancements are figured in, can be a test. Be that as it may, returns are regularly the main issue in accommodating records receivables. Due to these difficulties, third parties have begun to specialize in handling accounting and reconciliation issues. 2.7.10. OUTSOURCING REVERSE LOGISTICS In general, outsourcing can be described as the transfer of activities that were previously conducted in-house, to a third party. Ellram and Billington (2001) see outsourcing primarily as: The transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party’. A wider definition is reported by NEVI (2000): Outsourcing means that the company divests itself of the resources to fulfil a particular activity to another company to focus more effectively on its own competence. The difference with subcontracting is the divestment of assets, infrastructure, people and competencies. Many organizations are outsourcing most or the greater part of their supply chain operations. Some of these organizations are extending their outsourcing to reverse logistics operations. These organizations are utilizing their reverse logistics outsource provider as a benchmark to help figure out what and how reverse activities ought to be performed, and how much those activities ought to cost. Regularly, these outsource providers perform reverse activities well, and their clients find that utilizing these administration firms lessen the regulatory bother of doing it without anyone's help. These outsource providers have progressed toward becoming masters in dealing with the reverse flow, and performing key value-added services, such as remanufacturing and renovating. Examples; coca cola bottling and Guinness Ghana limited contracting (outsourcing) it assets returns or (recovery), such as crates, bottles sorting and transportation to DHL and others. 2.8. USING REVERSE LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction happens when the organizations meet or outperform customer wants. Frankly, in light of current conditions, customers regularly contemplate having their perception, organization (benefit procedures) and support essentials met, and significantly less about how their suppliers do it. What customers genuinely need is to have their voices heard - and from that point forward, have their suppliers/providers truly make a move (i.e., they have to get happens). Most companies utilize their supply chain and reverse logistics management tool as market differentiators. The reason for existing is to keep customers so content with their product and activities, sometimes as of late, in the midst of, and taking after the main transport, that they remain devoted to their suppliers, repurchasing their items or possibly benefits again, and yet again, and yet again. Be that as it may, in the last mentioned, the assessment depends on the client's aggregate pre-and post-buy involvement with the organization's items, administrations and support after some time (i.e., this "signify customer understanding"). Firms that incorporate new advancements, for instance: UPC scanner labels, RFIDs, etc. Into their return management are all things considered more inclined to develop and keep up strong customer relation over the long time in the manner of their development enhanced limits. 2.8.1 The principal attributes that eventually separate one Logistics Company (and its reverse logistic process) from another may be classified basically as follows. 1. Dexterous/ Agile Adaptability, or how well (and how rapidly) the organization can react to changes in its client or showcase requests and, thus, build up the new logistics procedures, items and administrations required to meet (and surpass) the channel members. 2. Inventory Management, The capacity to oversee both the cost and the accessibility of inventories adequately to the need and wants of the members’ satisfactions 3. Cycle Times, the time it takes the company to satisfy members and related exercises, both on the inbound and return management sides; 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the utilization of the most proper, auspicious and precise measurements for measuring execution (and consumer loyalty) on a progressing premise and. 3. Market Position and Presence, The limit of the relationship to develop, keep up and propel its coordination (reverse management) capacities and qualities both to its present customers and to the business focus with everything taken into account. For instance, if a firm does not have the most ideal reverse logistics set up, either in light of the way that they are not the best methodology, or they don't exist inside the firm by any extend of the creative ability, then it will be basically unequipped for giving the administration and reinforce its customers require. Moreover, paying little notice to how reasonable and all around arranged the systems may be, if they don't move the customers' products out and back quickly enough, shopper dependability will toward the day's end raise its immense head. Finally, if the firm can't evaluate either its own specific pivot supply operations or its customers' appraisals of its execution, then it will never know decisively where it stays in the minds of its customers or how to upgrade its operations to meet customer wants. 2.8.1. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONNECTION; Statistical survey has demonstrated that clients trust the accompanying ascribes to be of the best significance for both forward and reverse logistics: 1. Elimination of slow or lost shipments 2.Elimination of shipment discrepancies 3.Improved profit margins through the use of optimization tools 4. Reduction of inventory carrying costs for the customer 5.Support for its customers' efforts to reduce inventory investments, 6.Significantly reduced product/part returns, 7.Improved customer service and satisfaction through: ? Improved delivery reliability ? Improved efficiencies in customers' shipping/receiving operations ? One version of the "truth" for dispute resolution 2.8.2. Regardless, for there is truly be a "bond," or "relationship," between the reverse logistics organizations provider and its customers, there must in like manner be the going with shared characteristics 1. Mutually high expectations for the success of the partnership 2. Mutual loyalty 3. Framework/capability for technical data/information exchange (e.g., EDI) 4. Willingness to share risks/provide assistance in critical situations 5. Willingness to negotiate/mediate differences of opinion/interpretation 6. Use of joint provider/user task forces/teams 7. Two-way, frequent communications and feedback channels 8. Joint performance monitoring and tracking (i.e., against pre-set goals) 2.9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RL PRACTICES AND PROFITABILITY OF THE COMPANY Every firm is most worried with its profitability; a standout amongst the most every now and again utilized instruments of money related proportion investigation is benefit proportions which are utilized to decide the organization's main concern and its arrival to its speculators (Jensen and Webster, 2009). Profitability measures are imperative to organization directors and proprietors particularly in deciding the monetary execution of a firm and basic leadership. Productivity proportions demonstrate an organizations general effectiveness and execution. Productivity proportions can be separated into two sorts: edges and returns. Proportions that show edge speak to the organizations capacity to make an interpretation of offers in cedis into benefits at different phases of estimation. Proportions that show returns speak to the company's capacity to gauge the general productivity of the firm in creating returns for its shareholders (Lim and Lovell, 2009). Reverse logistics process profoundly adds to benefit of firms; already most firms particularly producing firms lost a considerable measure of profit. Today, return management is seen by most firms as a method for recouping lost benefits. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004), profitability investigation is a vital method for surveying management activities and proposed changes to a company's strategic frameworks (Richey, Genchev and Daugherty, 2005). Profitability studies goes past aggregate cost assessment by joining the income effect of calculated exercises. For instance, an enhanced level of administration may achieve expanded income as clients react to larger amounts of returns. Such changes must be incorporated with calculated framework activities. Moreover, the effect of advantages, for example, stock levels, debt claims and settled calculated resources ought to be joined into an exhaustive productivity investigation approach (Mueller, 1990). Basic return management capacities can cost organizations millions in lost benefits because of harmed client connections and outer liabilities that could enormously affect their business. Successfully oversaw, notwithstanding, return management activities can empower associations to discover shrouded benefits, enhance consumer loyalty and limit liabilities. Fleischmann and Kuik (2003), is that the normal producer will spend9% to 15% of aggregate income on returns, as indicated by a 2010 Aberdeen Group think about. They are frequently ignorant of the effect returns administration can have on their clients, their assets or their primary concern. Actually, enhancing reverse activities operations can help organization improve income up to 5% of aggregate deals (Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro, 2004). Reverse logistic practices assume a vital part of recovering the estimation of returned items or legitimately discarding them. An open door with this request of greatness has affected many organizations to push the limits of incorporated Reverse logistic practices to discover better approaches to streamline operations, drive benefits, and enjoyment clients. On top of that, some ground breaking organizations have made new lines of income through their aptitude in giving incorporated Reverse logistic benefits that sliced through the boundaries (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). Fawcett et al. (1995) contend that Reverse logistic practices can incorporate picking up input to make upgrades and to enhance the comprehension of genuine purposes behind item give back, this assume an imperative part in the development of an association prompting money related, natural and societal increases. 2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK From the basis of this study, the independent variables affect the dependent variable, which is profitability of manufacturing firms (industry) in Ghana. To this extent therefore, increase in profitability in manufacturing firms in Ghana, depends on how effective the manufacturing firms implement reverse logistics practices. The conceptual model indicated below will be used to explain the reverse logistics practices and how they will be used to lead to an increase in profitability of fan milk Ghana limited. DRIVERS: PROCESSES: ACTIVITIES: ELEMENTS: RESULTS: 2.11. CONTRIBUTIONS ON REVERSE LOGISTICS By reviewing the reverse logistics literature, I found some topics that are commonly studied by researchers which are worth knowing in order to get a general idea of what has been studied and what hasn’t. I will do a brief review of these research topics in this section. Early reverse logistics researchers seem to be more focus on the large-scale view of reverse logistics; most of their work went into the whole process of reverse flow. For example, (Kim et. al., 2007) studied on BOM (bill-of-material) restructuring and the development of bills of material to serve to challenges of remanufacturing. His study suggested that the forecasting of sales has to be fine-tuned to reflect the uncertainty and variety of core returns for both salvaged and new parts. Traditionally, manufacturers did not feel responsible for their products after they were sold to the consumers. The greater part of utilized items were dumped or burned with significant harm to the earth. Today, consumers and authorities experts anticipate that, producers will diminish the waste created by their items. Therefore, waste management has gotten expanding consideration. Recently, attention has been moving towards recovery, because of the high costs and environmental burdens of disposal. Firms turn out to be increasingly in charge of gathering, destroying and updating of utilized items and bundling materials. (RevLog, 1998), Webb (1994) discussed the “green movement”, he indicated that more environmental concerns are influencing reverse logistics activities, e.g. packaging regulation, customer preferences, these environmental issues are becoming big concerns about reverse logistics. Some literature addressed the focus on reverse logistics concerning product handling, e.g. transportation, inventory management, and distribution. White (1994) described importance of reverse logistics for material handling; material handling contains moving, storing, protecting and controlling materials. He indicated that, in the material handling system, protection is the first priority. Dawe (1995) viewed return management as the best opportunity to differentiate customer service and create a competitive advantage for a firm. In order to take the opportunity, Dawe (1995) suggested that the most needed reengineering factors are return process and warehousing operations. Fuller & Allen (1996) asserts that, waste is an unavoidable by-product of resource-conversion processes in the economic system and materials are recycled as part of a resource program that supports sustainable development in efforts to manage waste. The use of information on systematic way will help reverse channel networks for recyclable materials, and the lobbying efforts to support the passage of a recycling bill. Some researcher put reverse logistics practice into quantitative models. For instance, Clegg, Williams, & Uzsoy (1995) presented a linear programming model to investigate the effects of recycling and remanufacturing on companies? operations. One of the more interesting and significant trends in supply chain management is the recognition of the strategic importance of reverse logistics operations. (Retzlaf and others, 1997) These reverse logistics operations support a variety of activities ranging from what is termed “green logistics,” i.e., “efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the supply chain” to activities that encompass product returns, repairs, and refurbishment. (Daugherty and others, 2001) Firms can use this model to analyze the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing operations (Clegg et al, 1995). Aside for the above example, there are many other quantitative models contributed by various researchers (Fleischmann et al., 1997; Guide Jr, Srivastava, & Spencer, 1996; Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). These models can be used to improve numerous dimensions of reverse logistics practices, such as, extending product life cycles, protecting product failures, etc... Another commonly studied topic of logistics research is the application of reverse logistics. Kroon &Vrijens (1995) focus their attention on the waste avoidance, they asserted that “a change in attitude towards the environment is an absolute necessity”, and they proposed a whole process of “collection, recycling and reuse of products and materials” (Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). Autry et al. (2001) looked at the catalog retailing industry, investigating how reverse logistics performance and satisfaction with reverse logistics service are influenced by factors such as firm size, sales volume, and internal/external assignment of disposition. They came up with practical results suggesting that “neither performance nor satisfaction was significantly influenced by location of responsibility for disposition” (Autry et al., 2001). A recent study conducted by Breen (2006) analyzed the customer compliance in reverse logistics practices. This cross-industry study reported that without customer compliance, efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be seriously undermined; the losses are reported up to 144 million pounds. These literatures cover a wide range of topics, but there are some issues left out due to the time and financial constraints and would have been useful if addressed. To be more specific, these research mostly focus on industrial level issues, majority of articles are short and lack the depth to demonstrate the level of integration necessary to implement reverse logistics to functional areas such as consumer market. Marketing research on the other hand, frequently focuses on the customer, tend to neglect operational, supply chain issues (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). This study is conducted in hope to redress these shortcomings by linking the reverse logistics and marketing issue in the context of end-customer. Source: Mohammed shaik 2.12. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND KNOWLEDGE GAP REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE. There are no exact writing incorporates the requirement for reverse logistics management practices and how it impacts benefit of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. No Previous reviews lay more concrete or concentrate on reverse logistics management and execution; the reviews did not address issues of reverse logistics management practices and gainfulness of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. The researcher therefore thinks that it’s important to address this issue by assessing reverse logistics management practices utilized by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana and the relationship between reverse logistics management practices, productivity (profitability) and environmental issues of by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana. Reverse logistics management practices is one of the courses in which beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana can use to build their benefit through making most extreme utilization of their waste items and materials to deliver esteem included merchandise and enterprises at a lessened cost which consequently will prompt to enhanced consumer satisfaction and hence loyalty, increase market share and revenue and ultimately profitability of the firms. Recent studies show that, there is no specific Performance variable that adds to return management. There is no definite framework of return management performance measurement. There are no studies on evaluation as to how the return management organizations can implement return management successfully. Strategy, process, capabilities and perspectives, and their sub criteria attributes are very important strategic issues to the top management; there is no evidence about feather research on that, less to talk about its importance on the return management in supply chain management CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is to provide a review of the literature relevant to the research goals of this thesis. It places a particular emphasis on works concerned with reverse logistics flow of products and services in manufacturing sector. It continues with the contributions other researchers made on reverse logistics. This is followed by discussions of reverse logistics drivers, processes and activities and elements in a manufacturing firm. In its final parts it discusses the role of reverse logistics on customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2.1. DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS 2.1.1 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management is essentially an integrative process that seeks to optimize the flows of materials and supplies through the organization and its operations to the customer. It is essentially a planning process and an information-based activity. Requirements from the marketplace are translated into production requirements and then into materials requirements through this planning process. It is now being recognized that, for the real benefits of the logistics concept to be realized, there is a need to extend the logic of logistics upstream to suppliers and downstream to final customers. This is the concept of supply chain management. Global logistics: (new directions in supply chain management)/ [edited by] Donald waters. — 6th edition. Logistics is characterized by the board of organizations administration as the procedure of arranging, executing, and controlling the proficient, financially savvy stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed products and related data from the purpose of inception to the point of utilization with the end goal of adjusting to client prerequisites. Logistics is for the most part the nitty gritty association and execution of an unpredictable operation in a general negotiating prudence, Logistics is the administration of the stream of things between the purpose of root and the purpose of utilization with a specific end goal to meet necessities of clients or organizations. The assets overseen in coordinations (Logistics) can incorporate physical things, for example, nourishment, materials, creatures, hardware, and fluids; and in addition dynamic things, for example, time and data. The coordinations of physical things generally includes the reconciliation of data stream, material dealing with, generation, bundling, stock, transportation, warehousing, returns and frequently security. In military science, coordinations is worried about keeping up armed force supply lines while upsetting those of the adversary, since an outfitted compel without assets and transportation is exposed. Military coordinations was at that point rehearsed in the antiquated world and as current military have a huge requirement for coordinations arrangements, propelled usage have been created. In military coordinations, coordinations officers oversee how and when to move assets to the spots they are required 2.1.2 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management is entire network of entities, internal and external members with the common interest of satisfying the final consumer. These members include supply of raw material, manufacturers who convert raw material into product, warehouse/ stores that stores the product transportation that convey the product to the distributor, retailer, as they intern transport the product to the final consumer. Supply chain underlie esteem chain in line of the fact that, without them, no producer can give consumers what they need, when and where they need it at the value they need it. Manufacturers compete with each other through their supply chains, and no level of change at the producers end can compensate for the insignificancies in any inventory network which limit the producer capacity to satisfaction. (Business dictionary) August 6, 2015 by Surbhi S 2.1.3 CONTRASTS BETWEEN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN 1. Logistics management is centered more around interior (expansive) physical development of items and materials, while SCM incorporates Logistics management notwithstanding having a general perspective of materials, data, budgetary and operational procedures. SCM concentrates on both interior and outside sources and plans for the ideal results. 2. Description; Logistics is the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling strategies for the proficient and powerful transportation and capacity of merchandise, including administrations and related data, yet store network from the purpose of root to the point of utilization. Store network management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, data, and funds as they move in a procedure from supplier to producer to distributer to retailer to the final consumer. 3. Relationship with different divisions, Logistics does not specifically takes an interest in other office or portions, (SCM) May take an interest in activities such as, research and advertising that may directly affect the store network 4. The primary point of Logistics is full consumer loyalty. Then again, the primary point behind Supply Chain Management is competitive edge. 5. Logistics is just a movement of Supply Chain Management. 6. (L) Part of Supply Chain Management, (SC) Part of Management of the Company Source: Surbhi S 2.1.4. CONCLUSION Logistics is an extremely old term, ideal from the earliest starting point used as a piece of the military, for the upkeep, stockpiling and transportation of outfitted drive individuals and items. Nowadays, this term is used as a piece of various circles, not especially in the military after the progression of Supply Chain Management. It has moreover been said that SCM is an alternative over Logistics Management and what's more SCM contains Logistics. Both are indivisible. Consequently they don't invalidate however supplement each other. SCM makes Logistics be in contact with the transportation, stockpiling and movement gathering. Distinction amongst logistics and supply chain management 2.1.5. REVERSE LOGISTICS reverse logistics is defined by The Council of Logistics Management as ``The way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, financially savvy stream of raw materials, in-progress stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of beginning with the end goal of recovering worth or appropriate transfer/ disposal``. Return Logistics is a part of logistics. Generally when logistics is mentioned just a single way is thought of. That is the point at which the merchandise leaves the organization and is transported to the client. Reverse Logistics handles issues, for example, remanufacturing, renovating, reusing or transfer to utilize assets adequately. Dowlatshahi (2000,) Reverse logistics is a procedure in which a producer deliberately acknowledges vitally sent items or parts from the point for utilization for conceivable reusing, remanufacturing or /disposal transfer." Another definition by Hawks (2006) is that reverse logistics is "the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, practical stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of starting point with the end goal of recovering worth or legitimate transfer or disposal." She at that point keeps on clarifying it as reverse logistics is the way toward moving products from their final destination with the end goal of catching wealth, or appropriate transfer/disposal. A third meaning of invert coordinations by Larsen, Schary Mikkola and Philip (2007) is that reverse logistics envelops a wide scope of exercises inside, and outside of, logistics including: item returns, source decrease, reusing, material conveyance, reuse of material, squander disposal/ transfer and revamping, repair and remanufacturing. 2.2. REVERSE FLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE Overseeing reverse logistics is presently an essential component of supply chain management and, sometimes, a benefit creating capacity. Reverse logistics is turning into an essential part of supply chain management. Many organizations that, already, did not give much time, vitality or attention to the administration and comprehension of reverse have started to focus. Firms have started to benchmark return operations with best in-class administrators. Industries that spend significant time in returns have seen interest for their administrations extraordinarily expanded. Developing enthusiasm for natural concern around the world, constrained organizations to take part in reverse management, for example, re-utilization of items and materials and reusing. For all intents and purposes, the vast majority of the organizations manage returns of some nature on account of issues, for example, promoting returns, harm or quality issues, overloads, renovating or remanufacturing. Handling returns present a great challenge for companies, while in many cases becomes a necessity for keeping customers satisfaction to a certain level. Reverse logistics operations in a supply chain may be considered as an introduction to innovative services of a company's portfolio. They may importantly affect an association's key execution as far as market viability, and additionally, inward cost effectiveness. Through reverse logistics management advancement, it might be conceivable to extend income through market development because of record customization, benefit enlargement and enhanced consumer loyalty. Reverse management is turning into a territory of upper hand. For example, the accompanying; 1. Positive normal impact: institutions acts, commitment laws," oblige creators to develop an approach for the social occasion and reuse of things toward the complete of their life cycle 2. Competitiveness progressions, proficient treatment of returns leads to reduced costs, increased profits and improved customer service. 3. Regaining esteem: effective reverse logistics can catch values from reusing items or parts or recycling materials 4. Financial matters (immediate and backhanded), return management activities can lead to addition to organizations through lesser utilization of raw materials, including value addition of product recovery processes, decrease in costs of disposal, and so forth. The company likewise gets engaged with return management processes because of competition in the marketing, rivalry, as well as vital issues (strategic), which may bring indirect benefits. A conservative estimate is that reverse logistics is a significant portion of some major companies and the economies as a whole, such as the U.S, China, England as well as middle income economies such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya etc. Logistics costs were estimated to account for approximately 8.5% of the U.S economy in 2013. However, the exact amount of reverse logistics activity is difficult to determine because most companies do not carefully track reverse logistics costs. For the firms studied in this research, reverse logistics accounted, on average, for approximately 4.25% of total logistics costs. Applying this mean percentage to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), reverse logistics costs are estimated to be approximately one half of a percent of the total U.S. GDP. (”Delaney estimates that logistics costs accounted for $921 billion in 1999”). Based on the Delaney respondent sample, is that reverse logistics costs amounted to approximately $39.1425 billion in 1999. The size, scope, and impact of reverse logistics vary by industry and channel position as well as the type of distribution channel. It is clear, however that, the overall amount of reverse logistics activity in the economy is large and still growing. Within specific industries, reverse logistics activities can be critical for the firm. Generally, when the value of the product is large, or the return rate is great, much more effort has to be spent on improving return processes. In 1998, the remanufactured auto parts market was estimated by the Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA) at $36 billion. Rebuilding and remanufacturing conserve a considerable amount of resources. As indicated by the APRA, around half of a car starter is recuperated in the reconstructing procedure. This may bring about sparing a few million gallons of unrefined petroleum, and also steel and different metals. The APRA gauges that crude materials spared by remanufacturing worldwide would fill 155,000 railroad autos yearly, a travel more than 1,100 miles in length. 2.3 DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS Past reviews recommended that reverse management can be influenced by different elements inside and outside an organization. Internal considerations involved senior management commitment, support and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities (Routroy, 2009), Outside elements incorporate weights from government (regulatory bodies), customers, suppliers and competitors (Carter and Ellram, 1998; Wu and Cheng, 2006), Broad audit of the accessible writing uncovers four essential drivers for reverse logistics: regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility and expected business benefits. For example, Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) and Daher et al. (2006) contended that the primary reasons that make firms endeavor to adopt reverse logistics are: 1. Environmental enactment, which force organizations to reclaim their flawed items, waste or discharges 2. Economic benefits of using returned products in the production process such as recapture of value and recovery of assets 3. Growing public environmental laws and awareness 2.3.1.0 EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS In the Ghanaian context, there are no previous studies found investigating the drivers for reverse logistics. However, related studies tend to emphasis the importance of the four drivers identified earlier. For instance, Raman and Peir (2006) conducted interviews with 10 SMEs in Malaysia and found that the main drivers for corporate social responsibility activities (waste recycling, paperless technology and use of biodegradable containers) are: professional code of conduct and ethics, customer pressures (for firms that are suppliers to venders/ MNCs), expected financial returns (especially from recycling), personal values of the owner and reputation. The following subsections illustrate each of the stipulated drivers for reverse logistics (regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility, expected business benefits and the internal drivers) and their roles in motivating firms to adopt reverse logistics initiatives. 2.3.1.1 REGULATIONS Business organizations are expected to adopt green purchasing in response to environmental regulations set by various regulatory institutions such as government bodies inside the country, regulations in other countries (mainly import and export companies),such as the fan milk coca cola and Guinness etc. in the industry in Ghana in addition to regulations set by the parent companies. Such regulations take the form of formal rules, laws, sanctions and incentives (Scott, 1995). Firms try to avoid potential costs, uncertainty and legal liabilities inherent in existing and anticipated regulations (Clemens and Douglas, 2006). Moreover, regulatory institutions may provide inducements for organizations to behave in a certain way. Inducement mechanisms include providing incentives to organizations for conforming to the demands of the agency that offers the inducement as well as punishment to offenders (Grewal and Dharwadkar, 2002). Currently, there are more strict legislations regulations in many countries, especially in Europe, that require business organizations to take responsibility for their products from production up to the final disposal which strengths producers to assume liability for their items toward the finish of their product life, and RoSH, which requires safe disposal or recycling of consumed products. Previous studies found that firms adopt reverse logistics initiatives in response to these regulations (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Ravi et al., 2005; Murphy and Poist, 2003; Blumberg, 1999; Carter and Ellram, 1998). In Ghana, there are no government regulations that directly require business organizations to undertake reverse logistics activities. Example is Automakers worldwide are ramping up the industry's biggest-ever recall after parts supplier Takata, under pressure from U.S. authorities, agreed earlier last year to declare more of its air bags as defective in the United States and other countries. fortune Toyota -recall-takata airbag cars 2.3.1.2 CUSTOMER PRESSURES Customers represent the major financial stakeholders that buy products and services of organizations. As such, customers can exert considerable pressures and may communicate goals of sustainability or environmental performance on these organizations. Past studies found that client weight is one of the significant drivers for reverse supply chain management. For example, Alvarez-Gil et al. (2007) found that clients have huge impact on final decision on reverse supply chain programmes in an organization. Similarly, Carter and Ellram (1998) emphasized the importance of pressures from consumers and intermediate customers such as retailers, in affecting reverse logistics activities. 2.3.1.3 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES The enthusiasm for reverse supply chain is relied upon to radiate not just from the outer condition (regulations, profit and customers) but additionally from the inside awareness of other's expectations of a firm towards the general public in which it exists. For SRM, such affectability is escalated by the continually expanding natural issues, for example, a worldwide temperature alteration and contamination. Such problems are expected to raise the awareness of business firms to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. The ordinary supply chains are based on a linear production paradigm, which relies on constant input of virgin natural resources and unlimited environmental capacity for assimilation of wastes (Geyer and Jackson, 2004).Therefore, through reverse logistics, a firm can be more socially responsible by considering minimizing its use of virgin materials and reducing the level of waste. Drumwright (1994), Murphy and Poist (2003) and Ravi et al. (2005) discovered that, social responsibility has significant impact on green supply chain initiatives (green purchasing and Social responsibility), Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse with more than 1,100 victims as a reasons of substandard materials used as well as the persistent flooding in Accra and resent fire outbreak at circle have led to widespread discussions about corporate social responsibility across global reverse supply chains. 2.3.1.4 EXPECTED BUSINESS BENEFITS Revenue (profit) and financial returns are the most vital objectives of business organizations. In this sense, every decision is evaluated based on cost–benefit criteria. Environmental initiatives are expected to come along with this general rule, i.e., a firm needs to expect business benefits from green initiatives before it engages in these initiatives. Expected business benefits demonstrate that organizations adopt reverse logistics activities, for example, reusing and reusing of items and materials, in foresight of the way that these activities can possibly enhance gainfulness of these organizations through cost minimization and expanded incomes (Stock et al., 2002). Indeed, even without prompt benefit, adopt reverse logistics activities might be useful to create potential immaterial advantages, for example, change of corporate picture (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Toffel, 2004). Past reviews found that normal business benefits effectively affect reverse logistics activities. (Blumberg, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005) Review about US`s economy shows that expected benefits, such as cost savings, marketing opportunities and financial returns from resale of return products, represent important drivers for green initiatives. For instance, Anbumozhi and Kanda (2005,) argued that “companies in Asia need to see business value to justify the cost associated with compliance to a formal environmental standard” Zulkifli and Amran (2006,) argued that, “companies in Malaysia follow corporate social responsibility practices if they can get something in return.” 2.3.2.0. INTERNAL FACTORS The Internal factors include top management commitment and support, and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities. 2.4.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES As the former discourse shows, there are numerous exercises that could fall under the heading of reverse logistics, as defined already. Of all, the reverse logistics obligations inside an organization, which exercises qualify as reverse logistics? 2.4.1.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES An autonomous reverse logistics process begins with the end client choice that the item has achieved the finish of its life, harms or defective and should be discarding, repair or replicate the materials (Blumberg, 2005). These processes may include asset recovery and recycling management, field and technical support, parts planning, returns and repair management and service parts logistics (Biederman, 2006). In general, return process activities can be grouped into three stages, namely (1) product collection and transportation, (2) inspection, separation and sorting, and (3) recovery and disposition also known as the reverse logistics operations. 2.4.1.1 PRODUCT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION Typical reverse logistics activities would be the processes a company uses to collect used, damaged, unwanted, or outdated products, as well as packaging and shipping materials from the end-user or the reseller. Once the item has been received by the company, the firm has other disposal options from which to choose. When a product is nearing its expiring date or damage, customers never put their attention on it rather discard it or returned to the company for refund. So collection is the base of the reverse logistic and analyzing it`s transportation network design of supply chain is initiated.’ the blend of various system framework is key to have the capacity to coordinate well among the different individuals from the store network of the organizations: provider, clients, Distribution Center, Cross-docking and last mile approach. The principle preferred standpoint of this system is decreasing cost, time and enhancing the responsiveness. And furthermore this is the ideal system for gathering item reversely. 2.4.1.2 INSPECTION, SEPARATION AND SORTING Returned products need to be classified according to quality and composition in order to determine the route in the reverse chain (Le Blanc, 2006 PWC, 2008). The inspection, separation and sorting stage occurs at the collection point where the products are inspected and sorted on the basis of their quality (Ji, 2008; Wang et al., 2010) and then separated, which entails splitting the flow of used products according to their disposal options (Yimsiri, 2009). This stage thus denotes all operations determining whether a given product is reusable and in what way (Yimsiri, 2009), Inspection, separation and sorting may encompass testing, disassembly, shredding and storage (Wang et al., 2010; Yimsiri, 2009). After this stage, the organization must determine the reuse manner of the product and classify it (Ji, 2008) in order to move to the next stages of reprocessing, recovery and disposition. 2.4.1.3 RECOVERY AND DISPOSITION Recovery is the process of regain or discovering value from the returned product, components and materials (Le Blanc, 2006). Product disposition refers to the different ways organizations attempt to recover the costs of products that are being returned (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition involves putting the product back into inventory or temporary storage, repackaging, repair, refurbishing or remanufacturing (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition thus refers to the determination of ultimate outcome for the product (Genchev et al., 2010). Ultimately, “final disposition” refers to the exit route returned products finally take (Bernon et al., 2011). At the end of these processes, numerous disposition options are available to organizations. These reverse logistics disposition options form part of the activities and processes in reverse logistics. 2.5.0. TYPES/RATIONALE FOR RETURENS Understanding why returns occur helps identify opportunities for improving supply chain processes and decision-making.There are many types of returns that need to be managed, each of which poses unique challenges. Based on The Global Supply Chain forum, we group returns into five categories: consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, product recalls and environmental returns. 1. Consumer Returns: consumer returns product defects are generally the largest category of returns. Many companies have liberal returns policies that make it easy for consumers to return products. This is based on the belief that consumers will continue to purchase from a retailer with liberal returns policies which increase the retailer’s revenue. Main examples include: Defective returns: At the consumer or end-customer level, defective product comes back after purchase and some level of use. Such returns could indicate quality problems that need to be resolved in manufacturing or distribution. 2. No fault found’ returns: But many times firms find no defects upon inspection of returned products. These no fault found returns may be indicative of customers not understanding how to use the product appropriately, not being able to properly install the product, or simply finding that the product was not what they were expecting. These returns signal the need to re-engineer the product or communicate more effectively to customers about what to expect and how to use/install the product. Understanding the reasons for defective returns and no fault found returns requires the involvement of a cross-functional team that might include product design, engineering, packaging, manufacturing, distribution and marketing. The goal is to identify why these types of returns are happening and work to reduce their volume. 1. Marketing Returns: marketing returns consist of products returned from a position forward in the supply chain. At the retail or intermediary level, returns often come back due to slow-moving stock, quality issues, end-of-season inventory adjustments, or as a means to release capital so customers can buy more from the company. Other examples of marketing returns include: a. Close-cut returns, which are first quality products that the retailer or distributor has decided to no longer carry b. job-outs, where seasonal merchandise is returned after the season’s end c. Surplus goods un- purchase As retailer power in the channel continues to grow, manufacturers are being asked to bear an increased responsibility for taking back unwanted retail-level inventory. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as “fresh” product can command a higher margin than old product, and can be more competitive in the battle for consumer cedis. On the other hand, manufacturers get stuck with old inventory. Such product may have diminished market value, thus making profitable sales to other customers increasingly doubtful. The key to managing these returns is to try to avoid them. That doesn’t mean playing hardball with customers by simply refusing returns; rather, it means better matching demand and supply in the first place. 2. Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned in order to be reuse. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as tricycles ice containers also known as coreman equipment, and reusable containers. 3. Product Recalls: product recalls are a form of return that are usually initiated because of a safety or quality issue. Recalls can be voluntary or mandated by a government agency. They require more up-front planning than most other return types, and this planning is central to managing them effectively. Oct 26, 2016 Toyota Motor (tm, -0.32%) on Wednesday said it was recalling about 5.8 million cars at home and abroad over potentially faulty air bag inflators made by Takata 4. Environmental Returns: environment returns include the disposal of hazardous materials or abiding by environmental regulations. Environmental returns are different from other types of returns because they might include regulatory compliance that limits the set of options. Additionally, there are often stringent documentation and audit requirements 2.6.0 REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES The activities and alternatives in reverse logistics are similar and in a few occasions seen as the same. These activities and choices incorporate the accompanying: come back to the supplier, reuse, exchange, redistribution, rescue, repair, recondition, revamp, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal which may include either incineration or landfill. Each of these choices will now be depicted in further detail 2.6.1. RETURN TO THE SELLER: A product for which a customer wants a refund due to failure to meet the expectation of the customer, below the standard of performance. In this option, the organizations can return the product to the supplier for a full refund (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Returns to the seller can also be done when there was an incentive to order larger quantities than normal and if this excess product cannot be sold, and the buyer would be allowed to return these additional units 2.6.2 REUSE: Reuse essentially implies that the item can be utilized again for a reason like the one for which it was outlined or reused for another reasons (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reuse likewise includes repairing, revamping, washing or recouping utilized items. Reprocessed material is then used to deliver new items or to make results of lesser or esteem (Sarkis et al., 2010). There are a few alternatives in the reuse movement in reverse logistics in food and beverage industry in Ghana. 2.6.3. RESELL: In this alternative the item is sold once more. The organization has numerous choices as far as exchanging. Organization can either offer the items in general or in a crushed frame (Hugo et al., 2004). For example, they can sell the item to who would use it for occasional celebrations like birth date parties Christmas scrap merchants etc. where the costs may rely upon the state of item, the organization can offer items that are of less quality to a rescue organization that will regularly trade these items to outside business sectors (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). 2.6.4. REDISTRIBUTION: Redistribution means directing reusable items to a new market, or moving the item to potential new users (Krikke, 2009b; Yimsiri, 2009). In addition, redistribution can also take place where the organization plans to sell the recycled product, but it is essential for the organization to determine whether or not there is a market for the recycled products (Roy, 2003). 2.6.5. SALVAGE/ SCRAPE: Salvage is firmly identified with redistribution where an item is sold to an agent or some low-income client (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Nonetheless, rescue items have been utilized or damage, and can at no time in the future be sold as new. In salvage, items lose value in respect to the measure of utilization and the most troublesome piece of overseeing salvage is deciding its value. Any profitable materials that can be recovered will be salvage before the rest to the landfill 2.6.6. REPAIR/RECONDITION: According to Bhamra and Hon (2004) Repair is simply the “correction of specified faults of a product”. Repair/repackage relates to a moderate magnitude of corrections or repackaging which allows the product to be reused (Ji, 2008). Bhamra and Hon (2004) clarify reconditioning as the "means of giving back a utilized item to a tasteful working molding that might be mediocre compared to the first product". 2.6.7. REFURBISH: Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold. 2.6.8. RENOVATION (also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life. 2.6.9. REMANUFACTURING: is the reproduction of an item to specifications of the original manufactured item using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. Remanufacturing is a form of a product recovery process that differs from other recovery processes in its completeness: a remanufactured item should match the same customer expectation as the previous one. 2.6.10. RECYCLING: is the “process of converting the return or used products, components, and/or materials from the field, disassemble, separating them into categories of like materials, and processing into new form of products, components, and or materials” (Beamon, 1999). 2.6.11. DONATION: Sometimes organizations decide to give the returned products to charity organizations without receiving any compensation for these products. As a rule, organizations make use of this option because they pride themselves on being good corporate citizens and feel that it is important to support charities (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 2001). 2.6.12. DISPOSAL: Disposal is required for items that can't be reused for specialized or cost reasons. This would apply, say, to items rejected at the division level inferable from unreasonable repair prerequisites additionally to items without palatable market potential, say, attributable to out of date quality. The disposal done through the following two methods 2.6.12.1. INCINERATION. Is the “destruction of product that is harmful to human and other living things as well as the other products of the company through an electronic mean. 2.6.12.2. LANDFILLS the final disposal of solid waste on land (Enviro-Glossary) this involves controlled environments for the burying of waste (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Figure 2.1 illustrates the reverse logistics process and activities based on the above discussions Source: Mohammed shaik 2.7. RETURNS MANAGEMENT/ REVERSE LOGISTICS ELEMENTS, CONSTITUENT OR PRINCIPLES Returns management is that part of supply chain management that includes returns, reverse logistics, gatekeeping, and avoidance. This definition includes activities that are critical to supply chain management such as avoidance and gatekeeping. The management of the stream of materials is the concentration of this Chapter. As it will turn out to be clear, the different modalities for taking care of profits used by the exploration respondents can either positively or adversely affect an organization's main concern. What takes after is a definite examination of those elements characterized by the exploration group as key reverse logistics management components. 2.7.1. GATEKEEPING/ AVOIDANCE. This means making decisions to limit the number of items that are allowed into the reverse flow. Successful gatekeeping allows management to control and reduce returns without damaging customer service. Gatekeeping eliminates the cost associated with returning products that should not be returned or the cost of products returned to the inappropriate destination. The point of entry into the reverse flow is the best point to eliminate unnecessary cost and management of materials by screening unwanted returned merchandise. This Involve finding ways to minimize the number of return requests. It can include ensuring that the quality of product and user friendliness for the consumer is at the highest attainable level before the product is sold and shipped, or changing promotional programs to increase sales when there is no/little realistic chance that the product shipped to the customer will be sold. 2.7.2. COMPACT/ DISPOSITION CYCLE TIME Another basic component to fruitful reverse logistics management is having short disposition process durations. The organizations that is, best at dealing with their reverse logistics management procedures are capable at gatekeeping, as depicted previously. These organizations are additionally ready to diminish process durations identified with return item choices, development, and preparing. While most returned item does not age well, plainly many firms have not found how to turn away an extensive maturing process on their profits. Frequently, when material regularly returns to a dissemination focus, it is uncertain whether the things are: deficient, can be reused or restored, or should be sent to a landfill. The test of running a circulation framework in forward is troublesome; it is harder still for organizations to allot assets to deal with the framework in reverse logistics. Some portion of the trouble that organizations have in compacting disposition process duration is that there does not appear to be much reward for assuming liability and settling on an auspicious (favorable conditions) choice with reference to how item ought to be manner. Representatives experience issues settling on choices when the choice guidelines are not obviously expressed and special cases are regularly made. It is less demanding to pass the item back to the past stage in the channel, since that lessens both individual and organization chance. 2.7.3. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEMS Adequate and accurate information is necessary for effective management of returns. It also known amongst the most major issues that organizations confront in the execution of a reverse logistics operation is the deficiency of good data frameworks. Not very many firms have effectively robotized the data encompassing the arrival procedure. In light of the reaction of firms incorporated into the research, reverse logisticians appear to feel that about zero great reverse logistics management data frameworks are industrially accessible. Since data frameworks assets are typically extended as far as possible, those assets are generally not accessible for reverse logistics applications. To function admirably, a reverse logistics data framework must be adoptable. Notwithstanding the issues depicted above, robotization of those procedures is troublesome in light of the fact that, reverse management forms have such a variety of special cases. Reverse management is ordinarily a limit traversing (moving) process between firms or specialty units of a similar organization. Creating frameworks that need to work crosswise over limits adds extra unpredictability to the issue. For the retailer, a framework that tracks returns at store level is alluring. The framework ought to make a database at the store level so that the retailer can start following returned item and tail it to the distance back through the pipeline. Additionally, the stores can check whether the buyers are conferring to the rules and regulations of the reverse supply chain or taken an undue advantages to violate the system “return manhandle” or attempting to exploit the store. These advantages have been acknowledged on the grounds that, the firm has perceived the main issue effect of reverse management and doled out its assets to chip away at reverse management frameworks issues. 2.7.3. 1. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM TRANSACTION PROCESSING In a genuinely coordinated inventory network, everybody in the store network can track item as it pushes ahead through the channel. While there are not very many supply chains that truly work this well, there are virtually none that work backward (reverse). Most firms can't track returns inside their own company, considerably less some place outside of their firm due to lack of reverse logistics systems in place. 2.7.3.2. RETAILER When rules and policies regarding returns are not well understood by partners, then its management can be very difficult as partners may not be willing to accept responsibility for such things as damages and defect. Supply chain conflict usually results into poor coordination which is fundamental to supply chain efficiency. A retailer might need to reorder item from its supplier promptly, At that point, directing for handling or a capacity area inside the preparing center will be needed. A reverse warehouse management system may be required for this step (vender management systems) 2.7.3.3. MANUFACTURER The manufacturers will create a return authorization (RA) through of (VMS).This is regularly a manual procedure. RA could be created electronically, including a programmed verify whether the return ought to be approved. Next, the reasonable money related effect of the return could be produced. These capacities would be extremely useful in better overseeing returns. The following steps are to computerize pickup of item and a propelled dispatching in advance notice (advance shipment notification ASN) could be cut. After it is delivered, it is received. Presently, most manufacturers manually get returns. Once the material is received, a database is made for compromise. Since most manufacturers physically get material, this database is made gradually in the event that, it is made by any means. This drowsiness (snowlines) brings about moderating the compromise and the attitude of the profits. 2.7.3.4. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) STANDARDS Electronic data interchange (EDI) trade is the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to move information internal and external in an organized. PC retrievable information arranges that licenses data to be exchanged from a PC program in one area to a PC program in another area, without manual mediation. A case is the transmission of an electronic receipt from a provider's invoicing programming to a client's records receivable programming. This definition incorporates the immediate transmission of information between areas and partners transmission utilizing a mediator, for example, a correspondence arrange, and the trading of advanced stockpiling gadgets, such as attractive tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs. EDI is a standout amongst the most essential subsets of electronic business the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to encourage the data trade between two gatherings in a business exchange. The expectation of all electronic trade is to computerize business forms. A few exchanges can be totally paperless and move information starting with one PC application then onto the next PC application. By strict definition EDI falls under this kind of electronic business. Other electronic business exchanges are additionally paperless yet include manual mediation. Illustrations are Internet exchanges requiring one gathering to enter information physically. Electronic mail is another case of paperless however manual electronic trade. Now and then firms claim to do EDI when they are truly playing out a manual-to-PC exchange, for example, electronic request passage. referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic-Data-Interchange-EDI. 2.7.3.5. THE BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE IN REVERSE LOGISTICS 1. EDI was created to take care of the issues inalienable in paper based exchange handling and in different types of electronic correspondence. In tackling these issues, EDI is a device that empowers associations to reengineer data streams and business forms. Issues with the paper-based exchange framework are as follows: 2. Time delays; Postponements are created fundamentally by two components. Paper reports may take days to transport starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, manual preparing postponements are brought on by the need to key, record, recover, and look at information 3. Labor costs, in non-EDI frameworks, manual handling is required for information keying, report putting away and recovering, sorting, coordinating, accommodating, envelope stuffing, stamping, marking, and so forth. While robotized hardware can help with some of these procedures, most administrators will concur that work costs for archive preparing speaks to a critical extent of their overhead. When all is said in done, work based procedures are substantially more costly than non-work serious operations including PCs and broadcast communications 4. Errors, since data is keyed numerous circumstances and records are transported, put away, and recovered by individuals, non-EDI frameworks have a tendency to be mistake inclined Instability. This exists in two territories. To begin with, paper transportation and other manual preparing defers imply that the time the report is gotten is unverifiable. Once an exchange is sent, the sender does not know when the exchange will be gotten or when it will be handled. Second, the sender does not know whether the exchange has been gotten at all nor whether the recipient concurs with what was sent in the exchange. 5. High Inventories. In light of time deferrals and instabilities in non EDI preparing, inventories are frequently higher than would normally be appropriate. Lead times with paper handling are long. In an assembling firm, it might be for all intents and purposes difficult to accomplish an in the nick of time stock framework with the time postpones inalienable in non-EDI handling frameworks. 6. Data Access, EDI grants client access to an immense measure of itemized exchange information—in a non-EDI condition this is conceivable just with extraordinary exertion and time delay. Since EDI information is now in PC retrievable shape, it is liable to robotized handling and examination. Such data helps one retailer, for instance, screen offers of toys by model, shading, and client postal division. This empowers the retailer to react rapidly to changes in buyer taste 2.7.4 CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTERS/CENTRALIZED REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN The reverse supply chain, also called reverse logistics is usually fragmented between different actors. This leads to that no one has the overall responsibility. This then again leads to inefficient solutions and sub-optimization. But it is possible to identify the responsibility and where the initiative should be for managing the reverse flows through adapting a centralized control over the reverse supply chain. This is a system where one organization is responsible for collection, sorting and redistributing of return items. Centralist restructure of reverse supply chain Product returns Retailers/ resellers (Larsen, Schary, and Mikkola Philip: 2009) Above a model of a reverse supply chain is demonstrated. The point with this system is “that the gate-keeping activities of collection, inspecting and sorting are centralized within on organization. The same organization or another company at the up-stream levels of the supply chain may take on the physical processing.” (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola and Philip: 2009) 2.7.4.1. TYPICAL BENEFITS FROM A CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTER 1. Simplified store procedures, 2.Improved supplier relationships, 3. Better returns inventory control, 4. Improved inventory turns, 5.Reduced administrative costs, 6. Reduced store level costs, 7.Reduced shrinkage, 8. Refocus on retailer core competencies, 9.Reduced landfill, 10. Improved management information. (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola Philip: 2009). CRCs improve in-store in the following forms. 1. ACCESSIBILITY: One of the biggest advantages of having all of your products in one central location means you have easy access whenever you need it. Instead of trying to keep track of which products are where, you know, at all times, where your products are and how to access them. 2. EFFICIENT: The fact that all of your products are in one central location will make shipping your products much more efficient. Yes, sometimes your products will have to travel a little further than they would if you had multiple distribution centers. However, spreading your products throughout multiple distribution centers could mean delays in the shipping of some products over others, potentially leading to customer dissatisfaction. Multiple distribution centers also means there are multiple delivery routes, which can make the logistics of distribution even more congested. 3. REPORTING: Depending on what sort of business you’re in or what sorts of products you offer customers, you need to keep a close eye on what you have in stock. With a central distribution center, creating these types of reports becomes incredibly easy. You only have to go to one source rather than track down multiple reports from multiple distribution centers. 4. COSTS: You’ll save money in the long run since you won’t operate multiple distribution centers. You will also be able to cut down on employee costs because it does not take as much manpower to operate a single facility when compared to multiple centers. 5. CONSISTENCY: Sending returns back to a CRC brings about more reliable choices being made about item disposition. Since procedures are institutionalized (standard), mistakes are all the more effectively recognized and kept away from. The quality of returns processing generally improves as the firm moves to a centralized processing model. 6. SPACE UTILIZATION: Retail locations by and large have extremely restricted space in the store to give to returns. Normally, a retail location needs to commit however bigger space as could be expected to the offering floor for moving products only. A retailer does not have any desire to commit much space to hold non-offering returns. 7. LABOR SAVINGS: By unifying returns handling, a retailer limits the work required to finish the preparing of profits. One appropriately prepared worker at the CRC can by and large accomplish more in less time than the consolidated endeavors of a few client benefit work area representatives. 8. TRANSPORTATION COSTS: Many of the companies included in this research also found that their reverse logistics-related transportation costs decline due to consolidation. With a CRC model, a retailer or manufacturer can utilize “milk runs” to pick up returned goods. This way, a company can move more pallets and fewer boxes, increasing consolidation and thereby reducing freight costs. 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE. From the manufacturers ' perspective, the concentrated model can enhance client benefit. It can speed the compromise procedure, enhance return material approval (RMA) confirmation, and be a piece of creating critical administration data. As a result of union of profits, a producer can be more effectively wind up noticeably mindful of patterns in returns. Likewise, great reverse logistics processes can be a promoting technique to keep customers satisfy, preparing the exchange rapidly and give the client credit assembles and client faithfulness. A few firms trust that their returns system activities give them an extraordinary chance to satisfy the customers. Operating CRCs is a way of motivation from the firm to involve returns activities into the overall corporate strategic plan. It implies that somebody, for example, the general administrator of the CRC has the duty of ensuring that returns are handled properly 10. PROFIT IMPACT. Returns have a lower effect on the productivity of those organizations using outsourced brought together return focuses than those not utilizing outsourced unified return focuses. Organizations that utilized an in-house CRC found that reverse logistics management costs lessened profitability by 4.8 percent, while those organizations that utilized an third party to deal with their CRC discovered gainfulness decreased by 3.7 percent. 11. VISIBILITY OF QUALITY PROBLEMS. One of the focal points identified with working with CRC is that it winds up plainly less demanding to see quality issues as item streams in from a few retail locations. By following many return approvals, a firm can assemble an information stockroom that contains return reasons. On the off chance that a quality issue exists with an item, union of profits will highlight those quality troubles more rapidly than if returns spill in gradually from retail client benefit work areas. 2.7.4.2. SETBACKS 1. The totally brought together framework that deal with transportation expenses can increment since all items must be transported from the retail stores to the incorporated office. On the off chance that an item will be discarded, transporting it to a brought together office just to discard it expands costs, yet does not build incomes, in light of the fact that the item is as yet discarded. Be that as it may, the cost investment funds, diminished mien time, and enhanced incomes related with the execution of CRCs more than compensate for transportation costs brought about if the item is to be rejected In many cases, products that are going to be thrown away would not be processed at the retail store, anyway. 2. It is frequently hard to get mien choice consistency over a chain of stores for a few reasons. The representatives dealing with the client benefit work area may not be appropriately concerned prepared, new, or not truly worried about returns. 2.7.4.3. FORWARD AND BACKWARD An extensive number of firms trust that appropriation focuses won't function admirably in both forward and in reverse. While at first this conviction did not appear to be consistent to me, numerous conveyance focuses that would endeavor to effectively handle both forward and reverse production network streams will have much challenges. The issue might be connected more to center than to genuine ability. On the off chance that the appropriation focus administrator needs to settle on a decision between productively executing forward logistics versus, reverse logistics management the dissemination supply chain will concentrate on forward dispersion. In each circumstance, forward circulation administration is the top need of a conveyance focus that has new item stream as one of its duties. Few of the organizations trust that process duration preparing is contrarily influenced when one dispersion focus handles both forward and reverse logistics distribution. In dispersion focuses that have a predetermined number of dock entryways and dock space, item returning has a tendency to be misused and the handling of that material is frequently put off. This issue of using a dissemination focus to work both forward and in reverse is one reason that few firms are searching out for. It is troublesome for administrators to legitimize the cost of developing and staffing a huge building committed to taking care of "failures"–which is precisely how returned item is frequently seen inside the organization. A few firms concentrated under the examination can perform forward and reverse logistics operations in a similar office via precisely isolating both the stream of item and the workers. This division enables the reverse logistics management representatives to concentrate on the arrival stream and not be occupied by forward dispersion exercises. 2.7.5. ZERO RETURNS In a zero returns program, a provider tells its clients that no item will be acknowledged for return, “once ordered typically a Ghanaian adage which goes like “money paid is not refundable”. Rather, the provider will give the client a rebate off of the invoiced sum. Contingent upon the provider, the retailer either annihilates the item, or discards it in some other way. In another model being used in the PC business, the retailer gives back all items to a main issue on open return material approval (RMA). Usable item is paid for and sent to an outsider for restoration and disposition. Ineligible or unusable item is discarded in light of a predefined set of guidelines. In this model, the objective for the retailer is to enroll many producers as could reasonably be expected to take an interest, to empower incorporated getting, assessing, and installment handling. 2.7.5.1 2% TO 6% METHOD: An eminent method with zero merchandise exchanges is one that can be alluded to as the "2%/6%" method. In light of the impressive power that vast retailers have in the channel, it is hard for producers to proclaim a suitable returns stipend and stick to it. For instance, if a producer is pitching item to Kmart, and sets a six percent returns top, Kmart would consent to that top if the profits of the producer item don't surpass six percent. Truth be told, Kmart would likely be extremely cheerful if its real returns rate was two percent while it was accepting credit for six percent returns. Kmart would have the capacity to utilize the extra return top cash as a refund. In any case, if the producer sets a two percent return top and the real return rate is six percent, Kmart is not liable to agree to the producer's set return top rate. The retailer would rather demand that the producer cover the whole six percent returns. Due to the energy of the substantial retailers, most producers are not in a position to contend about the arrival top rate. This combined with the powerlessness of the producer to really control the demeanor of the item implies that, the retailer has fewer hazards than the producers from a zero returns program. A compelling zero returns programs require that both the purchaser and merchant genuinely comprehend what their real expenses are. 2.7.6. REMANUFACTURE AND REFURBISHMENT Thierry, et al. (1995) characterized five classifications of remanufacture and repair. These five classifications appeared in Table below repair, renovating, remanufacturing, cannibalization, and reusing. The initial three classes: repair, renovating, and remanufacturing, include item recondition and update. These alternatives vary as for the level of change. Repair includes minimal measure of push to overhaul the item, and remanufacture involves a lot. Cannibalization is basically the recuperation of a confined arrangement of reusable parts from utilized items (short item life cycle, because of the presentation of new item or else obsolete item). Reusing is the reuse of materials that were a piece of another item or subassembly. Remanufacturing and repairing of utilized item is on the ascent. Indeed, even NASA shuttle are being worked with remanufactured and renovated apparatuses. Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold 2.7.7. ASSET RECOVERY Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as drilling equipment, and reusable containers vehicles, bicycles, Coleman etc. 2.7.8. NEGOTIATION Bargaining making is a key portion of the reverse logistics process. In the forward stream of merchandise, costs are regularly set by brand administrators and promoting authorities. Reverse logistics frequently incorporates a haggling stage, where the estimation of returned material is consulted without valuing rules. These arrangements might be taken care of freely. Likewise, at least one of the arrangement accomplices frequently does not completely comprehend the genuine estimation of the returned materials, making open doors for specialist third parties to work on the edge. These third parties frequently utilize a portion of the most honed logisticians. This third party would demonstrate in a counseling ability to the essential members of the reverse network who are attempting to exchange responsibility for material back to the first source. Additionally, the third party can deal with the physical handling of the materials. Organizations, By and large, a similar third party does not deal with the esteem transactions and physical handling of the item for both the retailer and the upstream producer. There are exemptions to this govern, yet typically retailers and producers need distinctive third party to follow up for their sake to wipe out potential irreconcilable situation. 2.7.9. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgetary administration issues are the essential determinants in the structure of reverse logistics system and the way in which item is manned. Most firms need to enhance inner bookkeeping forms. Bookkeeping issues drive the activities of directors. In fan milk Ghana limited, in this research, bookkeeping issues drove stores manager to avoid typical return frameworks. In these cases, inner strategies and controls moved them to wasteful, wrong practices. Regularly, the cost of profits is charged against the business division. While this approach may for the most part be a sensible one, it can complicate reverse logistics processes. On the off chance that business work force are punished for returns, they will make a special effort to back off or crush the brisk acknowledgment of profits and the fast disposition of returned material. Issues identified with charge backs and main concern obligation regarding returns must be a key thought when building up a decent reverse logistics management framework. Dealing with what a provider is to be paid, when arrangements and advancements are figured in, can be a test. Be that as it may, returns are regularly the main issue in accommodating records receivables. Due to these difficulties, third parties have begun to specialize in handling accounting and reconciliation issues. 2.7.10. OUTSOURCING REVERSE LOGISTICS In general, outsourcing can be described as the transfer of activities that were previously conducted in-house, to a third party. Ellram and Billington (2001) see outsourcing primarily as: The transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party’. A wider definition is reported by NEVI (2000): Outsourcing means that the company divests itself of the resources to fulfil a particular activity to another company to focus more effectively on its own competence. The difference with subcontracting is the divestment of assets, infrastructure, people and competencies. Many organizations are outsourcing most or the greater part of their supply chain operations. Some of these organizations are extending their outsourcing to reverse logistics operations. These organizations are utilizing their reverse logistics outsource provider as a benchmark to help figure out what and how reverse activities ought to be performed, and how much those activities ought to cost. Regularly, these outsource providers perform reverse activities well, and their clients find that utilizing these administration firms lessen the regulatory bother of doing it without anyone's help. These outsource providers have progressed toward becoming masters in dealing with the reverse flow, and performing key value-added services, such as remanufacturing and renovating. Examples; coca cola bottling and Guinness Ghana limited contracting (outsourcing) it assets returns or (recovery), such as crates, bottles sorting and transportation to DHL and others. 2.8. USING REVERSE LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction happens when the organizations meet or outperform customer wants. Frankly, in light of current conditions, customers regularly contemplate having their perception, organization (benefit procedures) and support essentials met, and significantly less about how their suppliers do it. What customers genuinely need is to have their voices heard - and from that point forward, have their suppliers/providers truly make a move (i.e., they have to get happens). Most companies utilize their supply chain and reverse logistics management tool as market differentiators. The reason for existing is to keep customers so content with their product and activities, sometimes as of late, in the midst of, and taking after the main transport, that they remain devoted to their suppliers, repurchasing their items or possibly benefits again, and yet again, and yet again. Be that as it may, in the last mentioned, the assessment depends on the client's aggregate pre-and post-buy involvement with the organization's items, administrations and support after some time (i.e., this "signify customer understanding"). Firms that incorporate new advancements, for instance: UPC scanner labels, RFIDs, etc. Into their return management are all things considered more inclined to develop and keep up strong customer relation over the long time in the manner of their development enhanced limits. 2.8.1 The principal attributes that eventually separate one Logistics Company (and its reverse logistic process) from another may be classified basically as follows. 1. Dexterous/ Agile Adaptability, or how well (and how rapidly) the organization can react to changes in its client or showcase requests and, thus, build up the new logistics procedures, items and administrations required to meet (and surpass) the channel members. 2. Inventory Management, The capacity to oversee both the cost and the accessibility of inventories adequately to the need and wants of the members’ satisfactions 3. Cycle Times, the time it takes the company to satisfy members and related exercises, both on the inbound and return management sides; 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the utilization of the most proper, auspicious and precise measurements for measuring execution (and consumer loyalty) on a progressing premise and. 3. Market Position and Presence, The limit of the relationship to develop, keep up and propel its coordination (reverse management) capacities and qualities both to its present customers and to the business focus with everything taken into account. For instance, if a firm does not have the most ideal reverse logistics set up, either in light of the way that they are not the best methodology, or they don't exist inside the firm by any extend of the creative ability, then it will be basically unequipped for giving the administration and reinforce its customers require. Moreover, paying little notice to how reasonable and all around arranged the systems may be, if they don't move the customers' products out and back quickly enough, shopper dependability will toward the day's end raise its immense head. Finally, if the firm can't evaluate either its own specific pivot supply operations or its customers' appraisals of its execution, then it will never know decisively where it stays in the minds of its customers or how to upgrade its operations to meet customer wants. 2.8.1. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONNECTION; Statistical survey has demonstrated that clients trust the accompanying ascribes to be of the best significance for both forward and reverse logistics: 1. Elimination of slow or lost shipments 2.Elimination of shipment discrepancies 3.Improved profit margins through the use of optimization tools 4. Reduction of inventory carrying costs for the customer 5.Support for its customers' efforts to reduce inventory investments, 6.Significantly reduced product/part returns, 7.Improved customer service and satisfaction through: ? Improved delivery reliability ? Improved efficiencies in customers' shipping/receiving operations ? One version of the "truth" for dispute resolution 2.8.2. Regardless, for there is truly be a "bond," or "relationship," between the reverse logistics organizations provider and its customers, there must in like manner be the going with shared characteristics 1. Mutually high expectations for the success of the partnership 2. Mutual loyalty 3. Framework/capability for technical data/information exchange (e.g., EDI) 4. Willingness to share risks/provide assistance in critical situations 5. Willingness to negotiate/mediate differences of opinion/interpretation 6. Use of joint provider/user task forces/teams 7. Two-way, frequent communications and feedback channels 8. Joint performance monitoring and tracking (i.e., against pre-set goals) 2.9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RL PRACTICES AND PROFITABILITY OF THE COMPANY Every firm is most worried with its profitability; a standout amongst the most every now and again utilized instruments of money related proportion investigation is benefit proportions which are utilized to decide the organization's main concern and its arrival to its speculators (Jensen and Webster, 2009). Profitability measures are imperative to organization directors and proprietors particularly in deciding the monetary execution of a firm and basic leadership. Productivity proportions demonstrate an organizations general effectiveness and execution. Productivity proportions can be separated into two sorts: edges and returns. Proportions that show edge speak to the organizations capacity to make an interpretation of offers in cedis into benefits at different phases of estimation. Proportions that show returns speak to the company's capacity to gauge the general productivity of the firm in creating returns for its shareholders (Lim and Lovell, 2009). Reverse logistics process profoundly adds to benefit of firms; already most firms particularly producing firms lost a considerable measure of profit. Today, return management is seen by most firms as a method for recouping lost benefits. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004), profitability investigation is a vital method for surveying management activities and proposed changes to a company's strategic frameworks (Richey, Genchev and Daugherty, 2005). Profitability studies goes past aggregate cost assessment by joining the income effect of calculated exercises. For instance, an enhanced level of administration may achieve expanded income as clients react to larger amounts of returns. Such changes must be incorporated with calculated framework activities. Moreover, the effect of advantages, for example, stock levels, debt claims and settled calculated resources ought to be joined into an exhaustive productivity investigation approach (Mueller, 1990). Basic return management capacities can cost organizations millions in lost benefits because of harmed client connections and outer liabilities that could enormously affect their business. Successfully oversaw, notwithstanding, return management activities can empower associations to discover shrouded benefits, enhance consumer loyalty and limit liabilities. Fleischmann and Kuik (2003), is that the normal producer will spend9% to 15% of aggregate income on returns, as indicated by a 2010 Aberdeen Group think about. They are frequently ignorant of the effect returns administration can have on their clients, their assets or their primary concern. Actually, enhancing reverse activities operations can help organization improve income up to 5% of aggregate deals (Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro, 2004). Reverse logistic practices assume a vital part of recovering the estimation of returned items or legitimately discarding them. An open door with this request of greatness has affected many organizations to push the limits of incorporated Reverse logistic practices to discover better approaches to streamline operations, drive benefits, and enjoyment clients. On top of that, some ground breaking organizations have made new lines of income through their aptitude in giving incorporated Reverse logistic benefits that sliced through the boundaries (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). Fawcett et al. (1995) contend that Reverse logistic practices can incorporate picking up input to make upgrades and to enhance the comprehension of genuine purposes behind item give back, this assume an imperative part in the development of an association prompting money related, natural and societal increases. 2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK From the basis of this study, the independent variables affect the dependent variable, which is profitability of manufacturing firms (industry) in Ghana. To this extent therefore, increase in profitability in manufacturing firms in Ghana, depends on how effective the manufacturing firms implement reverse logistics practices. The conceptual model indicated below will be used to explain the reverse logistics practices and how they will be used to lead to an increase in profitability of fan milk Ghana limited. DRIVERS: PROCESSES: ACTIVITIES: ELEMENTS: RESULTS: 2.11. CONTRIBUTIONS ON REVERSE LOGISTICS By reviewing the reverse logistics literature, I found some topics that are commonly studied by researchers which are worth knowing in order to get a general idea of what has been studied and what hasn’t. I will do a brief review of these research topics in this section. Early reverse logistics researchers seem to be more focus on the large-scale view of reverse logistics; most of their work went into the whole process of reverse flow. For example, (Kim et. al., 2007) studied on BOM (bill-of-material) restructuring and the development of bills of material to serve to challenges of remanufacturing. His study suggested that the forecasting of sales has to be fine-tuned to reflect the uncertainty and variety of core returns for both salvaged and new parts. Traditionally, manufacturers did not feel responsible for their products after they were sold to the consumers. The greater part of utilized items were dumped or burned with significant harm to the earth. Today, consumers and authorities experts anticipate that, producers will diminish the waste created by their items. Therefore, waste management has gotten expanding consideration. Recently, attention has been moving towards recovery, because of the high costs and environmental burdens of disposal. Firms turn out to be increasingly in charge of gathering, destroying and updating of utilized items and bundling materials. (RevLog, 1998), Webb (1994) discussed the “green movement”, he indicated that more environmental concerns are influencing reverse logistics activities, e.g. packaging regulation, customer preferences, these environmental issues are becoming big concerns about reverse logistics. Some literature addressed the focus on reverse logistics concerning product handling, e.g. transportation, inventory management, and distribution. White (1994) described importance of reverse logistics for material handling; material handling contains moving, storing, protecting and controlling materials. He indicated that, in the material handling system, protection is the first priority. Dawe (1995) viewed return management as the best opportunity to differentiate customer service and create a competitive advantage for a firm. In order to take the opportunity, Dawe (1995) suggested that the most needed reengineering factors are return process and warehousing operations. Fuller & Allen (1996) asserts that, waste is an unavoidable by-product of resource-conversion processes in the economic system and materials are recycled as part of a resource program that supports sustainable development in efforts to manage waste. The use of information on systematic way will help reverse channel networks for recyclable materials, and the lobbying efforts to support the passage of a recycling bill. Some researcher put reverse logistics practice into quantitative models. For instance, Clegg, Williams, & Uzsoy (1995) presented a linear programming model to investigate the effects of recycling and remanufacturing on companies? operations. One of the more interesting and significant trends in supply chain management is the recognition of the strategic importance of reverse logistics operations. (Retzlaf and others, 1997) These reverse logistics operations support a variety of activities ranging from what is termed “green logistics,” i.e., “efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the supply chain” to activities that encompass product returns, repairs, and refurbishment. (Daugherty and others, 2001) Firms can use this model to analyze the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing operations (Clegg et al, 1995). Aside for the above example, there are many other quantitative models contributed by various researchers (Fleischmann et al., 1997; Guide Jr, Srivastava, & Spencer, 1996; Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). These models can be used to improve numerous dimensions of reverse logistics practices, such as, extending product life cycles, protecting product failures, etc... Another commonly studied topic of logistics research is the application of reverse logistics. Kroon &Vrijens (1995) focus their attention on the waste avoidance, they asserted that “a change in attitude towards the environment is an absolute necessity”, and they proposed a whole process of “collection, recycling and reuse of products and materials” (Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). Autry et al. (2001) looked at the catalog retailing industry, investigating how reverse logistics performance and satisfaction with reverse logistics service are influenced by factors such as firm size, sales volume, and internal/external assignment of disposition. They came up with practical results suggesting that “neither performance nor satisfaction was significantly influenced by location of responsibility for disposition” (Autry et al., 2001). A recent study conducted by Breen (2006) analyzed the customer compliance in reverse logistics practices. This cross-industry study reported that without customer compliance, efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be seriously undermined; the losses are reported up to 144 million pounds. These literatures cover a wide range of topics, but there are some issues left out due to the time and financial constraints and would have been useful if addressed. To be more specific, these research mostly focus on industrial level issues, majority of articles are short and lack the depth to demonstrate the level of integration necessary to implement reverse logistics to functional areas such as consumer market. Marketing research on the other hand, frequently focuses on the customer, tend to neglect operational, supply chain issues (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). This study is conducted in hope to redress these shortcomings by linking the reverse logistics and marketing issue in the context of end-customer. Source: Mohammed shaik 2.12. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND KNOWLEDGE GAP REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE. There are no exact writing incorporates the requirement for reverse logistics management practices and how it impacts benefit of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. No Previous reviews lay more concrete or concentrate on reverse logistics management and execution; the reviews did not address issues of reverse logistics management practices and gainfulness of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. The researcher therefore thinks that it’s important to address this issue by assessing reverse logistics management practices utilized by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana and the relationship between reverse logistics management practices, productivity (profitability) and environmental issues of by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana. Reverse logistics management practices is one of the courses in which beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana can use to build their benefit through making most extreme utilization of their waste items and materials to deliver esteem included merchandise and enterprises at a lessened cost which consequently will prompt to enhanced consumer satisfaction and hence loyalty, increase market share and revenue and ultimately profitability of the firms. Recent studies show that, there is no specific Performance variable that adds to return management. There is no definite framework of return management performance measurement. There are no studies on evaluation as to how the return management organizations can implement return management successfully. Strategy, process, capabilities and perspectives, and their sub criteria attributes are very important strategic issues to the top management; there is no evidence about feather research on that, less to talk about its importance on the return management in supply chain management CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0. INTRODUCTION This chapter is to provide a review of the literature relevant to the research goals of this thesis. It places a particular emphasis on works concerned with reverse logistics flow of products and services in manufacturing sector. It continues with the contributions other researchers made on reverse logistics. This is followed by discussions of reverse logistics drivers, processes and activities and elements in a manufacturing firm. In its final parts it discusses the role of reverse logistics on customer satisfaction and loyalty. 2.1. DEFINITIONS OF KEY CONCEPTS 2.1.1 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT Logistics management is essentially an integrative process that seeks to optimize the flows of materials and supplies through the organization and its operations to the customer. It is essentially a planning process and an information-based activity. Requirements from the marketplace are translated into production requirements and then into materials requirements through this planning process. It is now being recognized that, for the real benefits of the logistics concept to be realized, there is a need to extend the logic of logistics upstream to suppliers and downstream to final customers. This is the concept of supply chain management. Global logistics: (new directions in supply chain management)/ [edited by] Donald waters. — 6th edition. Logistics is characterized by the board of organizations administration as the procedure of arranging, executing, and controlling the proficient, financially savvy stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed products and related data from the purpose of inception to the point of utilization with the end goal of adjusting to client prerequisites. Logistics is for the most part the nitty gritty association and execution of an unpredictable operation in a general negotiating prudence, Logistics is the administration of the stream of things between the purpose of root and the purpose of utilization with a specific end goal to meet necessities of clients or organizations. The assets overseen in coordinations (Logistics) can incorporate physical things, for example, nourishment, materials, creatures, hardware, and fluids; and in addition dynamic things, for example, time and data. The coordinations of physical things generally includes the reconciliation of data stream, material dealing with, generation, bundling, stock, transportation, warehousing, returns and frequently security. In military science, coordinations is worried about keeping up armed force supply lines while upsetting those of the adversary, since an outfitted compel without assets and transportation is exposed. Military coordinations was at that point rehearsed in the antiquated world and as current military have a huge requirement for coordinations arrangements, propelled usage have been created. In military coordinations, coordinations officers oversee how and when to move assets to the spots they are required 2.1.2 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Supply chain management is entire network of entities, internal and external members with the common interest of satisfying the final consumer. These members include supply of raw material, manufacturers who convert raw material into product, warehouse/ stores that stores the product transportation that convey the product to the distributor, retailer, as they intern transport the product to the final consumer. Supply chain underlie esteem chain in line of the fact that, without them, no producer can give consumers what they need, when and where they need it at the value they need it. Manufacturers compete with each other through their supply chains, and no level of change at the producers end can compensate for the insignificancies in any inventory network which limit the producer capacity to satisfaction. (Business dictionary) August 6, 2015 by Surbhi S 2.1.3 CONTRASTS BETWEEN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN 1. Logistics management is centered more around interior (expansive) physical development of items and materials, while SCM incorporates Logistics management notwithstanding having a general perspective of materials, data, budgetary and operational procedures. SCM concentrates on both interior and outside sources and plans for the ideal results. 2. Description; Logistics is the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling strategies for the proficient and powerful transportation and capacity of merchandise, including administrations and related data, yet store network from the purpose of root to the point of utilization. Store network management (SCM) is the oversight of materials, data, and funds as they move in a procedure from supplier to producer to distributer to retailer to the final consumer. 3. Relationship with different divisions, Logistics does not specifically takes an interest in other office or portions, (SCM) May take an interest in activities such as, research and advertising that may directly affect the store network 4. The primary point of Logistics is full consumer loyalty. Then again, the primary point behind Supply Chain Management is competitive edge. 5. Logistics is just a movement of Supply Chain Management. 6. (L) Part of Supply Chain Management, (SC) Part of Management of the Company Source: Surbhi S 2.1.4. CONCLUSION Logistics is an extremely old term, ideal from the earliest starting point used as a piece of the military, for the upkeep, stockpiling and transportation of outfitted drive individuals and items. Nowadays, this term is used as a piece of various circles, not especially in the military after the progression of Supply Chain Management. It has moreover been said that SCM is an alternative over Logistics Management and what's more SCM contains Logistics. Both are indivisible. Consequently they don't invalidate however supplement each other. SCM makes Logistics be in contact with the transportation, stockpiling and movement gathering. Distinction amongst logistics and supply chain management 2.1.5. REVERSE LOGISTICS reverse logistics is defined by The Council of Logistics Management as ``The way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, financially savvy stream of raw materials, in-progress stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of beginning with the end goal of recovering worth or appropriate transfer/ disposal``. Return Logistics is a part of logistics. Generally when logistics is mentioned just a single way is thought of. That is the point at which the merchandise leaves the organization and is transported to the client. Reverse Logistics handles issues, for example, remanufacturing, renovating, reusing or transfer to utilize assets adequately. Dowlatshahi (2000,) Reverse logistics is a procedure in which a producer deliberately acknowledges vitally sent items or parts from the point for utilization for conceivable reusing, remanufacturing or /disposal transfer." Another definition by Hawks (2006) is that reverse logistics is "the way toward arranging, actualizing, and controlling the productive, practical stream of crude materials, in-handle stock, completed merchandise and related information from the point of utilization to the point of starting point with the end goal of recovering worth or legitimate transfer or disposal." She at that point keeps on clarifying it as reverse logistics is the way toward moving products from their final destination with the end goal of catching wealth, or appropriate transfer/disposal. A third meaning of invert coordinations by Larsen, Schary Mikkola and Philip (2007) is that reverse logistics envelops a wide scope of exercises inside, and outside of, logistics including: item returns, source decrease, reusing, material conveyance, reuse of material, squander disposal/ transfer and revamping, repair and remanufacturing. 2.2. REVERSE FLOW AND ITS IMPORTANCE Overseeing reverse logistics is presently an essential component of supply chain management and, sometimes, a benefit creating capacity. Reverse logistics is turning into an essential part of supply chain management. Many organizations that, already, did not give much time, vitality or attention to the administration and comprehension of reverse have started to focus. Firms have started to benchmark return operations with best in-class administrators. Industries that spend significant time in returns have seen interest for their administrations extraordinarily expanded. Developing enthusiasm for natural concern around the world, constrained organizations to take part in reverse management, for example, re-utilization of items and materials and reusing. For all intents and purposes, the vast majority of the organizations manage returns of some nature on account of issues, for example, promoting returns, harm or quality issues, overloads, renovating or remanufacturing. Handling returns present a great challenge for companies, while in many cases becomes a necessity for keeping customers satisfaction to a certain level. Reverse logistics operations in a supply chain may be considered as an introduction to innovative services of a company's portfolio. They may importantly affect an association's key execution as far as market viability, and additionally, inward cost effectiveness. Through reverse logistics management advancement, it might be conceivable to extend income through market development because of record customization, benefit enlargement and enhanced consumer loyalty. Reverse management is turning into a territory of upper hand. For example, the accompanying; 1. Positive normal impact: institutions acts, commitment laws," oblige creators to develop an approach for the social occasion and reuse of things toward the complete of their life cycle 2. Competitiveness progressions, proficient treatment of returns leads to reduced costs, increased profits and improved customer service. 3. Regaining esteem: effective reverse logistics can catch values from reusing items or parts or recycling materials 4. Financial matters (immediate and backhanded), return management activities can lead to addition to organizations through lesser utilization of raw materials, including value addition of product recovery processes, decrease in costs of disposal, and so forth. The company likewise gets engaged with return management processes because of competition in the marketing, rivalry, as well as vital issues (strategic), which may bring indirect benefits. A conservative estimate is that reverse logistics is a significant portion of some major companies and the economies as a whole, such as the U.S, China, England as well as middle income economies such as Ghana, Nigeria and Kenya etc. Logistics costs were estimated to account for approximately 8.5% of the U.S economy in 2013. However, the exact amount of reverse logistics activity is difficult to determine because most companies do not carefully track reverse logistics costs. For the firms studied in this research, reverse logistics accounted, on average, for approximately 4.25% of total logistics costs. Applying this mean percentage to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), reverse logistics costs are estimated to be approximately one half of a percent of the total U.S. GDP. (”Delaney estimates that logistics costs accounted for $921 billion in 1999”). Based on the Delaney respondent sample, is that reverse logistics costs amounted to approximately $39.1425 billion in 1999. The size, scope, and impact of reverse logistics vary by industry and channel position as well as the type of distribution channel. It is clear, however that, the overall amount of reverse logistics activity in the economy is large and still growing. Within specific industries, reverse logistics activities can be critical for the firm. Generally, when the value of the product is large, or the return rate is great, much more effort has to be spent on improving return processes. In 1998, the remanufactured auto parts market was estimated by the Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA) at $36 billion. Rebuilding and remanufacturing conserve a considerable amount of resources. As indicated by the APRA, around half of a car starter is recuperated in the reconstructing procedure. This may bring about sparing a few million gallons of unrefined petroleum, and also steel and different metals. The APRA gauges that crude materials spared by remanufacturing worldwide would fill 155,000 railroad autos yearly, a travel more than 1,100 miles in length. 2.3 DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS Past reviews recommended that reverse management can be influenced by different elements inside and outside an organization. Internal considerations involved senior management commitment, support and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities (Routroy, 2009), Outside elements incorporate weights from government (regulatory bodies), customers, suppliers and competitors (Carter and Ellram, 1998; Wu and Cheng, 2006), Broad audit of the accessible writing uncovers four essential drivers for reverse logistics: regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility and expected business benefits. For example, Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) and Daher et al. (2006) contended that the primary reasons that make firms endeavor to adopt reverse logistics are: 1. Environmental enactment, which force organizations to reclaim their flawed items, waste or discharges 2. Economic benefits of using returned products in the production process such as recapture of value and recovery of assets 3. Growing public environmental laws and awareness 2.3.1.0 EXTERNAL DRIVERS FOR REVERSE LOGISTICS In the Ghanaian context, there are no previous studies found investigating the drivers for reverse logistics. However, related studies tend to emphasis the importance of the four drivers identified earlier. For instance, Raman and Peir (2006) conducted interviews with 10 SMEs in Malaysia and found that the main drivers for corporate social responsibility activities (waste recycling, paperless technology and use of biodegradable containers) are: professional code of conduct and ethics, customer pressures (for firms that are suppliers to venders/ MNCs), expected financial returns (especially from recycling), personal values of the owner and reputation. The following subsections illustrate each of the stipulated drivers for reverse logistics (regulations, customer pressures, social responsibility, expected business benefits and the internal drivers) and their roles in motivating firms to adopt reverse logistics initiatives. 2.3.1.1 REGULATIONS Business organizations are expected to adopt green purchasing in response to environmental regulations set by various regulatory institutions such as government bodies inside the country, regulations in other countries (mainly import and export companies),such as the fan milk coca cola and Guinness etc. in the industry in Ghana in addition to regulations set by the parent companies. Such regulations take the form of formal rules, laws, sanctions and incentives (Scott, 1995). Firms try to avoid potential costs, uncertainty and legal liabilities inherent in existing and anticipated regulations (Clemens and Douglas, 2006). Moreover, regulatory institutions may provide inducements for organizations to behave in a certain way. Inducement mechanisms include providing incentives to organizations for conforming to the demands of the agency that offers the inducement as well as punishment to offenders (Grewal and Dharwadkar, 2002). Currently, there are more strict legislations regulations in many countries, especially in Europe, that require business organizations to take responsibility for their products from production up to the final disposal which strengths producers to assume liability for their items toward the finish of their product life, and RoSH, which requires safe disposal or recycling of consumed products. Previous studies found that firms adopt reverse logistics initiatives in response to these regulations (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Ravi et al., 2005; Murphy and Poist, 2003; Blumberg, 1999; Carter and Ellram, 1998). In Ghana, there are no government regulations that directly require business organizations to undertake reverse logistics activities. Example is Automakers worldwide are ramping up the industry's biggest-ever recall after parts supplier Takata, under pressure from U.S. authorities, agreed earlier last year to declare more of its air bags as defective in the United States and other countries. fortune Toyota -recall-takata airbag cars 2.3.1.2 CUSTOMER PRESSURES Customers represent the major financial stakeholders that buy products and services of organizations. As such, customers can exert considerable pressures and may communicate goals of sustainability or environmental performance on these organizations. Past studies found that client weight is one of the significant drivers for reverse supply chain management. For example, Alvarez-Gil et al. (2007) found that clients have huge impact on final decision on reverse supply chain programmes in an organization. Similarly, Carter and Ellram (1998) emphasized the importance of pressures from consumers and intermediate customers such as retailers, in affecting reverse logistics activities. 2.3.1.3 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES The enthusiasm for reverse supply chain is relied upon to radiate not just from the outer condition (regulations, profit and customers) but additionally from the inside awareness of other's expectations of a firm towards the general public in which it exists. For SRM, such affectability is escalated by the continually expanding natural issues, for example, a worldwide temperature alteration and contamination. Such problems are expected to raise the awareness of business firms to behave in a more socially responsible manner and reflect an image of due diligence and commitment to sustainability and social responsibility. The ordinary supply chains are based on a linear production paradigm, which relies on constant input of virgin natural resources and unlimited environmental capacity for assimilation of wastes (Geyer and Jackson, 2004).Therefore, through reverse logistics, a firm can be more socially responsible by considering minimizing its use of virgin materials and reducing the level of waste. Drumwright (1994), Murphy and Poist (2003) and Ravi et al. (2005) discovered that, social responsibility has significant impact on green supply chain initiatives (green purchasing and Social responsibility), Incidents like the 2013 Savar building collapse with more than 1,100 victims as a reasons of substandard materials used as well as the persistent flooding in Accra and resent fire outbreak at circle have led to widespread discussions about corporate social responsibility across global reverse supply chains. 2.3.1.4 EXPECTED BUSINESS BENEFITS Revenue (profit) and financial returns are the most vital objectives of business organizations. In this sense, every decision is evaluated based on cost–benefit criteria. Environmental initiatives are expected to come along with this general rule, i.e., a firm needs to expect business benefits from green initiatives before it engages in these initiatives. Expected business benefits demonstrate that organizations adopt reverse logistics activities, for example, reusing and reusing of items and materials, in foresight of the way that these activities can possibly enhance gainfulness of these organizations through cost minimization and expanded incomes (Stock et al., 2002). Indeed, even without prompt benefit, adopt reverse logistics activities might be useful to create potential immaterial advantages, for example, change of corporate picture (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007; Toffel, 2004). Past reviews found that normal business benefits effectively affect reverse logistics activities. (Blumberg, 1999; Ravi et al., 2005) Review about US`s economy shows that expected benefits, such as cost savings, marketing opportunities and financial returns from resale of return products, represent important drivers for green initiatives. For instance, Anbumozhi and Kanda (2005,) argued that “companies in Asia need to see business value to justify the cost associated with compliance to a formal environmental standard” Zulkifli and Amran (2006,) argued that, “companies in Malaysia follow corporate social responsibility practices if they can get something in return.” 2.3.2.0. INTERNAL FACTORS The Internal factors include top management commitment and support, and the existence of an incentive system that rewards employees and Managers for their involvement in reverse logistics activities. 2.4.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES AND PROCESSES As the former discourse shows, there are numerous exercises that could fall under the heading of reverse logistics, as defined already. Of all, the reverse logistics obligations inside an organization, which exercises qualify as reverse logistics? 2.4.1.0. REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES An autonomous reverse logistics process begins with the end client choice that the item has achieved the finish of its life, harms or defective and should be discarding, repair or replicate the materials (Blumberg, 2005). These processes may include asset recovery and recycling management, field and technical support, parts planning, returns and repair management and service parts logistics (Biederman, 2006). In general, return process activities can be grouped into three stages, namely (1) product collection and transportation, (2) inspection, separation and sorting, and (3) recovery and disposition also known as the reverse logistics operations. 2.4.1.1 PRODUCT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION Typical reverse logistics activities would be the processes a company uses to collect used, damaged, unwanted, or outdated products, as well as packaging and shipping materials from the end-user or the reseller. Once the item has been received by the company, the firm has other disposal options from which to choose. When a product is nearing its expiring date or damage, customers never put their attention on it rather discard it or returned to the company for refund. So collection is the base of the reverse logistic and analyzing it`s transportation network design of supply chain is initiated.’ the blend of various system framework is key to have the capacity to coordinate well among the different individuals from the store network of the organizations: provider, clients, Distribution Center, Cross-docking and last mile approach. The principle preferred standpoint of this system is decreasing cost, time and enhancing the responsiveness. And furthermore this is the ideal system for gathering item reversely. 2.4.1.2 INSPECTION, SEPARATION AND SORTING Returned products need to be classified according to quality and composition in order to determine the route in the reverse chain (Le Blanc, 2006 PWC, 2008). The inspection, separation and sorting stage occurs at the collection point where the products are inspected and sorted on the basis of their quality (Ji, 2008; Wang et al., 2010) and then separated, which entails splitting the flow of used products according to their disposal options (Yimsiri, 2009). This stage thus denotes all operations determining whether a given product is reusable and in what way (Yimsiri, 2009), Inspection, separation and sorting may encompass testing, disassembly, shredding and storage (Wang et al., 2010; Yimsiri, 2009). After this stage, the organization must determine the reuse manner of the product and classify it (Ji, 2008) in order to move to the next stages of reprocessing, recovery and disposition. 2.4.1.3 RECOVERY AND DISPOSITION Recovery is the process of regain or discovering value from the returned product, components and materials (Le Blanc, 2006). Product disposition refers to the different ways organizations attempt to recover the costs of products that are being returned (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition involves putting the product back into inventory or temporary storage, repackaging, repair, refurbishing or remanufacturing (Stock & Mulki, 2009). Disposition thus refers to the determination of ultimate outcome for the product (Genchev et al., 2010). Ultimately, “final disposition” refers to the exit route returned products finally take (Bernon et al., 2011). At the end of these processes, numerous disposition options are available to organizations. These reverse logistics disposition options form part of the activities and processes in reverse logistics. 2.5.0. TYPES/RATIONALE FOR RETURENS Understanding why returns occur helps identify opportunities for improving supply chain processes and decision-making.There are many types of returns that need to be managed, each of which poses unique challenges. Based on The Global Supply Chain forum, we group returns into five categories: consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, product recalls and environmental returns. 1. Consumer Returns: consumer returns product defects are generally the largest category of returns. Many companies have liberal returns policies that make it easy for consumers to return products. This is based on the belief that consumers will continue to purchase from a retailer with liberal returns policies which increase the retailer’s revenue. Main examples include: Defective returns: At the consumer or end-customer level, defective product comes back after purchase and some level of use. Such returns could indicate quality problems that need to be resolved in manufacturing or distribution. 2. No fault found’ returns: But many times firms find no defects upon inspection of returned products. These no fault found returns may be indicative of customers not understanding how to use the product appropriately, not being able to properly install the product, or simply finding that the product was not what they were expecting. These returns signal the need to re-engineer the product or communicate more effectively to customers about what to expect and how to use/install the product. Understanding the reasons for defective returns and no fault found returns requires the involvement of a cross-functional team that might include product design, engineering, packaging, manufacturing, distribution and marketing. The goal is to identify why these types of returns are happening and work to reduce their volume. 1. Marketing Returns: marketing returns consist of products returned from a position forward in the supply chain. At the retail or intermediary level, returns often come back due to slow-moving stock, quality issues, end-of-season inventory adjustments, or as a means to release capital so customers can buy more from the company. Other examples of marketing returns include: a. Close-cut returns, which are first quality products that the retailer or distributor has decided to no longer carry b. job-outs, where seasonal merchandise is returned after the season’s end c. Surplus goods un- purchase As retailer power in the channel continues to grow, manufacturers are being asked to bear an increased responsibility for taking back unwanted retail-level inventory. This is not necessarily a bad thing, as “fresh” product can command a higher margin than old product, and can be more competitive in the battle for consumer cedis. On the other hand, manufacturers get stuck with old inventory. Such product may have diminished market value, thus making profitable sales to other customers increasingly doubtful. The key to managing these returns is to try to avoid them. That doesn’t mean playing hardball with customers by simply refusing returns; rather, it means better matching demand and supply in the first place. 2. Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned in order to be reuse. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as tricycles ice containers also known as coreman equipment, and reusable containers. 3. Product Recalls: product recalls are a form of return that are usually initiated because of a safety or quality issue. Recalls can be voluntary or mandated by a government agency. They require more up-front planning than most other return types, and this planning is central to managing them effectively. Oct 26, 2016 Toyota Motor (tm, -0.32%) on Wednesday said it was recalling about 5.8 million cars at home and abroad over potentially faulty air bag inflators made by Takata 4. Environmental Returns: environment returns include the disposal of hazardous materials or abiding by environmental regulations. Environmental returns are different from other types of returns because they might include regulatory compliance that limits the set of options. Additionally, there are often stringent documentation and audit requirements 2.6.0 REVERSE LOGISTICS ACTIVITIES The activities and alternatives in reverse logistics are similar and in a few occasions seen as the same. These activities and choices incorporate the accompanying: come back to the supplier, reuse, exchange, redistribution, rescue, repair, recondition, revamp, remanufacturing, recycling and disposal which may include either incineration or landfill. Each of these choices will now be depicted in further detail 2.6.1. RETURN TO THE SELLER: A product for which a customer wants a refund due to failure to meet the expectation of the customer, below the standard of performance. In this option, the organizations can return the product to the supplier for a full refund (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Returns to the seller can also be done when there was an incentive to order larger quantities than normal and if this excess product cannot be sold, and the buyer would be allowed to return these additional units 2.6.2 REUSE: Reuse essentially implies that the item can be utilized again for a reason like the one for which it was outlined or reused for another reasons (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Reuse likewise includes repairing, revamping, washing or recouping utilized items. Reprocessed material is then used to deliver new items or to make results of lesser or esteem (Sarkis et al., 2010). There are a few alternatives in the reuse movement in reverse logistics in food and beverage industry in Ghana. 2.6.3. RESELL: In this alternative the item is sold once more. The organization has numerous choices as far as exchanging. Organization can either offer the items in general or in a crushed frame (Hugo et al., 2004). For example, they can sell the item to who would use it for occasional celebrations like birth date parties Christmas scrap merchants etc. where the costs may rely upon the state of item, the organization can offer items that are of less quality to a rescue organization that will regularly trade these items to outside business sectors (Hugo et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). 2.6.4. REDISTRIBUTION: Redistribution means directing reusable items to a new market, or moving the item to potential new users (Krikke, 2009b; Yimsiri, 2009). In addition, redistribution can also take place where the organization plans to sell the recycled product, but it is essential for the organization to determine whether or not there is a market for the recycled products (Roy, 2003). 2.6.5. SALVAGE/ SCRAPE: Salvage is firmly identified with redistribution where an item is sold to an agent or some low-income client (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Nonetheless, rescue items have been utilized or damage, and can at no time in the future be sold as new. In salvage, items lose value in respect to the measure of utilization and the most troublesome piece of overseeing salvage is deciding its value. Any profitable materials that can be recovered will be salvage before the rest to the landfill 2.6.6. REPAIR/RECONDITION: According to Bhamra and Hon (2004) Repair is simply the “correction of specified faults of a product”. Repair/repackage relates to a moderate magnitude of corrections or repackaging which allows the product to be reused (Ji, 2008). Bhamra and Hon (2004) clarify reconditioning as the "means of giving back a utilized item to a tasteful working molding that might be mediocre compared to the first product". 2.6.7. REFURBISH: Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold. 2.6.8. RENOVATION (also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life. 2.6.9. REMANUFACTURING: is the reproduction of an item to specifications of the original manufactured item using a combination of reused, repaired and new parts. Remanufacturing is a form of a product recovery process that differs from other recovery processes in its completeness: a remanufactured item should match the same customer expectation as the previous one. 2.6.10. RECYCLING: is the “process of converting the return or used products, components, and/or materials from the field, disassemble, separating them into categories of like materials, and processing into new form of products, components, and or materials” (Beamon, 1999). 2.6.11. DONATION: Sometimes organizations decide to give the returned products to charity organizations without receiving any compensation for these products. As a rule, organizations make use of this option because they pride themselves on being good corporate citizens and feel that it is important to support charities (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 2001). 2.6.12. DISPOSAL: Disposal is required for items that can't be reused for specialized or cost reasons. This would apply, say, to items rejected at the division level inferable from unreasonable repair prerequisites additionally to items without palatable market potential, say, attributable to out of date quality. The disposal done through the following two methods 2.6.12.1. INCINERATION. Is the “destruction of product that is harmful to human and other living things as well as the other products of the company through an electronic mean. 2.6.12.2. LANDFILLS the final disposal of solid waste on land (Enviro-Glossary) this involves controlled environments for the burying of waste (Rogers & Tibben-Lembke, 1998). Figure 2.1 illustrates the reverse logistics process and activities based on the above discussions Source: Mohammed shaik 2.7. RETURNS MANAGEMENT/ REVERSE LOGISTICS ELEMENTS, CONSTITUENT OR PRINCIPLES Returns management is that part of supply chain management that includes returns, reverse logistics, gatekeeping, and avoidance. This definition includes activities that are critical to supply chain management such as avoidance and gatekeeping. The management of the stream of materials is the concentration of this Chapter. As it will turn out to be clear, the different modalities for taking care of profits used by the exploration respondents can either positively or adversely affect an organization's main concern. What takes after is a definite examination of those elements characterized by the exploration group as key reverse logistics management components. 2.7.1. GATEKEEPING/ AVOIDANCE. This means making decisions to limit the number of items that are allowed into the reverse flow. Successful gatekeeping allows management to control and reduce returns without damaging customer service. Gatekeeping eliminates the cost associated with returning products that should not be returned or the cost of products returned to the inappropriate destination. The point of entry into the reverse flow is the best point to eliminate unnecessary cost and management of materials by screening unwanted returned merchandise. This Involve finding ways to minimize the number of return requests. It can include ensuring that the quality of product and user friendliness for the consumer is at the highest attainable level before the product is sold and shipped, or changing promotional programs to increase sales when there is no/little realistic chance that the product shipped to the customer will be sold. 2.7.2. COMPACT/ DISPOSITION CYCLE TIME Another basic component to fruitful reverse logistics management is having short disposition process durations. The organizations that is, best at dealing with their reverse logistics management procedures are capable at gatekeeping, as depicted previously. These organizations are additionally ready to diminish process durations identified with return item choices, development, and preparing. While most returned item does not age well, plainly many firms have not found how to turn away an extensive maturing process on their profits. Frequently, when material regularly returns to a dissemination focus, it is uncertain whether the things are: deficient, can be reused or restored, or should be sent to a landfill. The test of running a circulation framework in forward is troublesome; it is harder still for organizations to allot assets to deal with the framework in reverse logistics. Some portion of the trouble that organizations have in compacting disposition process duration is that there does not appear to be much reward for assuming liability and settling on an auspicious (favorable conditions) choice with reference to how item ought to be manner. Representatives experience issues settling on choices when the choice guidelines are not obviously expressed and special cases are regularly made. It is less demanding to pass the item back to the past stage in the channel, since that lessens both individual and organization chance. 2.7.3. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEMS Adequate and accurate information is necessary for effective management of returns. It also known amongst the most major issues that organizations confront in the execution of a reverse logistics operation is the deficiency of good data frameworks. Not very many firms have effectively robotized the data encompassing the arrival procedure. In light of the reaction of firms incorporated into the research, reverse logisticians appear to feel that about zero great reverse logistics management data frameworks are industrially accessible. Since data frameworks assets are typically extended as far as possible, those assets are generally not accessible for reverse logistics applications. To function admirably, a reverse logistics data framework must be adoptable. Notwithstanding the issues depicted above, robotization of those procedures is troublesome in light of the fact that, reverse management forms have such a variety of special cases. Reverse management is ordinarily a limit traversing (moving) process between firms or specialty units of a similar organization. Creating frameworks that need to work crosswise over limits adds extra unpredictability to the issue. For the retailer, a framework that tracks returns at store level is alluring. The framework ought to make a database at the store level so that the retailer can start following returned item and tail it to the distance back through the pipeline. Additionally, the stores can check whether the buyers are conferring to the rules and regulations of the reverse supply chain or taken an undue advantages to violate the system “return manhandle” or attempting to exploit the store. These advantages have been acknowledged on the grounds that, the firm has perceived the main issue effect of reverse management and doled out its assets to chip away at reverse management frameworks issues. 2.7.3. 1. REVERSE LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM TRANSACTION PROCESSING In a genuinely coordinated inventory network, everybody in the store network can track item as it pushes ahead through the channel. While there are not very many supply chains that truly work this well, there are virtually none that work backward (reverse). Most firms can't track returns inside their own company, considerably less some place outside of their firm due to lack of reverse logistics systems in place. 2.7.3.2. RETAILER When rules and policies regarding returns are not well understood by partners, then its management can be very difficult as partners may not be willing to accept responsibility for such things as damages and defect. Supply chain conflict usually results into poor coordination which is fundamental to supply chain efficiency. A retailer might need to reorder item from its supplier promptly, At that point, directing for handling or a capacity area inside the preparing center will be needed. A reverse warehouse management system may be required for this step (vender management systems) 2.7.3.3. MANUFACTURER The manufacturers will create a return authorization (RA) through of (VMS).This is regularly a manual procedure. RA could be created electronically, including a programmed verify whether the return ought to be approved. Next, the reasonable money related effect of the return could be produced. These capacities would be extremely useful in better overseeing returns. The following steps are to computerize pickup of item and a propelled dispatching in advance notice (advance shipment notification ASN) could be cut. After it is delivered, it is received. Presently, most manufacturers manually get returns. Once the material is received, a database is made for compromise. Since most manufacturers physically get material, this database is made gradually in the event that, it is made by any means. This drowsiness (snowlines) brings about moderating the compromise and the attitude of the profits. 2.7.3.4. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI) STANDARDS Electronic data interchange (EDI) trade is the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to move information internal and external in an organized. PC retrievable information arranges that licenses data to be exchanged from a PC program in one area to a PC program in another area, without manual mediation. A case is the transmission of an electronic receipt from a provider's invoicing programming to a client's records receivable programming. This definition incorporates the immediate transmission of information between areas and partners transmission utilizing a mediator, for example, a correspondence arrange, and the trading of advanced stockpiling gadgets, such as attractive tapes, diskettes, and CD-ROMs. EDI is a standout amongst the most essential subsets of electronic business the utilization of PC and media transmission innovation to encourage the data trade between two gatherings in a business exchange. The expectation of all electronic trade is to computerize business forms. A few exchanges can be totally paperless and move information starting with one PC application then onto the next PC application. By strict definition EDI falls under this kind of electronic business. Other electronic business exchanges are additionally paperless yet include manual mediation. Illustrations are Internet exchanges requiring one gathering to enter information physically. Electronic mail is another case of paperless however manual electronic trade. Now and then firms claim to do EDI when they are truly playing out a manual-to-PC exchange, for example, electronic request passage. referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Eco-Ent/Electronic-Data-Interchange-EDI. 2.7.3.5. THE BENEFITS OF ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE IN REVERSE LOGISTICS 1. EDI was created to take care of the issues inalienable in paper based exchange handling and in different types of electronic correspondence. In tackling these issues, EDI is a device that empowers associations to reengineer data streams and business forms. Issues with the paper-based exchange framework are as follows: 2. Time delays; Postponements are created fundamentally by two components. Paper reports may take days to transport starting with one area then onto the next. What's more, manual preparing postponements are brought on by the need to key, record, recover, and look at information 3. Labor costs, in non-EDI frameworks, manual handling is required for information keying, report putting away and recovering, sorting, coordinating, accommodating, envelope stuffing, stamping, marking, and so forth. While robotized hardware can help with some of these procedures, most administrators will concur that work costs for archive preparing speaks to a critical extent of their overhead. When all is said in done, work based procedures are substantially more costly than non-work serious operations including PCs and broadcast communications 4. Errors, since data is keyed numerous circumstances and records are transported, put away, and recovered by individuals, non-EDI frameworks have a tendency to be mistake inclined Instability. This exists in two territories. To begin with, paper transportation and other manual preparing defers imply that the time the report is gotten is unverifiable. Once an exchange is sent, the sender does not know when the exchange will be gotten or when it will be handled. Second, the sender does not know whether the exchange has been gotten at all nor whether the recipient concurs with what was sent in the exchange. 5. High Inventories. In light of time deferrals and instabilities in non EDI preparing, inventories are frequently higher than would normally be appropriate. Lead times with paper handling are long. In an assembling firm, it might be for all intents and purposes difficult to accomplish an in the nick of time stock framework with the time postpones inalienable in non-EDI handling frameworks. 6. Data Access, EDI grants client access to an immense measure of itemized exchange information—in a non-EDI condition this is conceivable just with extraordinary exertion and time delay. Since EDI information is now in PC retrievable shape, it is liable to robotized handling and examination. Such data helps one retailer, for instance, screen offers of toys by model, shading, and client postal division. This empowers the retailer to react rapidly to changes in buyer taste 2.7.4 CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTERS/CENTRALIZED REVERSE SUPPLY CHAIN The reverse supply chain, also called reverse logistics is usually fragmented between different actors. This leads to that no one has the overall responsibility. This then again leads to inefficient solutions and sub-optimization. But it is possible to identify the responsibility and where the initiative should be for managing the reverse flows through adapting a centralized control over the reverse supply chain. This is a system where one organization is responsible for collection, sorting and redistributing of return items. Centralist restructure of reverse supply chain Product returns Retailers/ resellers (Larsen, Schary, and Mikkola Philip: 2009) Above a model of a reverse supply chain is demonstrated. The point with this system is “that the gate-keeping activities of collection, inspecting and sorting are centralized within on organization. The same organization or another company at the up-stream levels of the supply chain may take on the physical processing.” (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola and Philip: 2009) 2.7.4.1. TYPICAL BENEFITS FROM A CENTRALIZED RETURN CENTER 1. Simplified store procedures, 2.Improved supplier relationships, 3. Better returns inventory control, 4. Improved inventory turns, 5.Reduced administrative costs, 6. Reduced store level costs, 7.Reduced shrinkage, 8. Refocus on retailer core competencies, 9.Reduced landfill, 10. Improved management information. (Larsen, Schary, Mikkola Philip: 2009). CRCs improve in-store in the following forms. 1. ACCESSIBILITY: One of the biggest advantages of having all of your products in one central location means you have easy access whenever you need it. Instead of trying to keep track of which products are where, you know, at all times, where your products are and how to access them. 2. EFFICIENT: The fact that all of your products are in one central location will make shipping your products much more efficient. Yes, sometimes your products will have to travel a little further than they would if you had multiple distribution centers. However, spreading your products throughout multiple distribution centers could mean delays in the shipping of some products over others, potentially leading to customer dissatisfaction. Multiple distribution centers also means there are multiple delivery routes, which can make the logistics of distribution even more congested. 3. REPORTING: Depending on what sort of business you’re in or what sorts of products you offer customers, you need to keep a close eye on what you have in stock. With a central distribution center, creating these types of reports becomes incredibly easy. You only have to go to one source rather than track down multiple reports from multiple distribution centers. 4. COSTS: You’ll save money in the long run since you won’t operate multiple distribution centers. You will also be able to cut down on employee costs because it does not take as much manpower to operate a single facility when compared to multiple centers. 5. CONSISTENCY: Sending returns back to a CRC brings about more reliable choices being made about item disposition. Since procedures are institutionalized (standard), mistakes are all the more effectively recognized and kept away from. The quality of returns processing generally improves as the firm moves to a centralized processing model. 6. SPACE UTILIZATION: Retail locations by and large have extremely restricted space in the store to give to returns. Normally, a retail location needs to commit however bigger space as could be expected to the offering floor for moving products only. A retailer does not have any desire to commit much space to hold non-offering returns. 7. LABOR SAVINGS: By unifying returns handling, a retailer limits the work required to finish the preparing of profits. One appropriately prepared worker at the CRC can by and large accomplish more in less time than the consolidated endeavors of a few client benefit work area representatives. 8. TRANSPORTATION COSTS: Many of the companies included in this research also found that their reverse logistics-related transportation costs decline due to consolidation. With a CRC model, a retailer or manufacturer can utilize “milk runs” to pick up returned goods. This way, a company can move more pallets and fewer boxes, increasing consolidation and thereby reducing freight costs. 9. CUSTOMER SERVICE. From the manufacturers ' perspective, the concentrated model can enhance client benefit. It can speed the compromise procedure, enhance return material approval (RMA) confirmation, and be a piece of creating critical administration data. As a result of union of profits, a producer can be more effectively wind up noticeably mindful of patterns in returns. Likewise, great reverse logistics processes can be a promoting technique to keep customers satisfy, preparing the exchange rapidly and give the client credit assembles and client faithfulness. A few firms trust that their returns system activities give them an extraordinary chance to satisfy the customers. Operating CRCs is a way of motivation from the firm to involve returns activities into the overall corporate strategic plan. It implies that somebody, for example, the general administrator of the CRC has the duty of ensuring that returns are handled properly 10. PROFIT IMPACT. Returns have a lower effect on the productivity of those organizations using outsourced brought together return focuses than those not utilizing outsourced unified return focuses. Organizations that utilized an in-house CRC found that reverse logistics management costs lessened profitability by 4.8 percent, while those organizations that utilized an third party to deal with their CRC discovered gainfulness decreased by 3.7 percent. 11. VISIBILITY OF QUALITY PROBLEMS. One of the focal points identified with working with CRC is that it winds up plainly less demanding to see quality issues as item streams in from a few retail locations. By following many return approvals, a firm can assemble an information stockroom that contains return reasons. On the off chance that a quality issue exists with an item, union of profits will highlight those quality troubles more rapidly than if returns spill in gradually from retail client benefit work areas. 2.7.4.2. SETBACKS 1. The totally brought together framework that deal with transportation expenses can increment since all items must be transported from the retail stores to the incorporated office. On the off chance that an item will be discarded, transporting it to a brought together office just to discard it expands costs, yet does not build incomes, in light of the fact that the item is as yet discarded. Be that as it may, the cost investment funds, diminished mien time, and enhanced incomes related with the execution of CRCs more than compensate for transportation costs brought about if the item is to be rejected In many cases, products that are going to be thrown away would not be processed at the retail store, anyway. 2. It is frequently hard to get mien choice consistency over a chain of stores for a few reasons. The representatives dealing with the client benefit work area may not be appropriately concerned prepared, new, or not truly worried about returns. 2.7.4.3. FORWARD AND BACKWARD An extensive number of firms trust that appropriation focuses won't function admirably in both forward and in reverse. While at first this conviction did not appear to be consistent to me, numerous conveyance focuses that would endeavor to effectively handle both forward and reverse production network streams will have much challenges. The issue might be connected more to center than to genuine ability. On the off chance that the appropriation focus administrator needs to settle on a decision between productively executing forward logistics versus, reverse logistics management the dissemination supply chain will concentrate on forward dispersion. In each circumstance, forward circulation administration is the top need of a conveyance focus that has new item stream as one of its duties. Few of the organizations trust that process duration preparing is contrarily influenced when one dispersion focus handles both forward and reverse logistics distribution. In dispersion focuses that have a predetermined number of dock entryways and dock space, item returning has a tendency to be misused and the handling of that material is frequently put off. This issue of using a dissemination focus to work both forward and in reverse is one reason that few firms are searching out for. It is troublesome for administrators to legitimize the cost of developing and staffing a huge building committed to taking care of "failures"–which is precisely how returned item is frequently seen inside the organization. A few firms concentrated under the examination can perform forward and reverse logistics operations in a similar office via precisely isolating both the stream of item and the workers. This division enables the reverse logistics management representatives to concentrate on the arrival stream and not be occupied by forward dispersion exercises. 2.7.5. ZERO RETURNS In a zero returns program, a provider tells its clients that no item will be acknowledged for return, “once ordered typically a Ghanaian adage which goes like “money paid is not refundable”. Rather, the provider will give the client a rebate off of the invoiced sum. Contingent upon the provider, the retailer either annihilates the item, or discards it in some other way. In another model being used in the PC business, the retailer gives back all items to a main issue on open return material approval (RMA). Usable item is paid for and sent to an outsider for restoration and disposition. Ineligible or unusable item is discarded in light of a predefined set of guidelines. In this model, the objective for the retailer is to enroll many producers as could reasonably be expected to take an interest, to empower incorporated getting, assessing, and installment handling. 2.7.5.1 2% TO 6% METHOD: An eminent method with zero merchandise exchanges is one that can be alluded to as the "2%/6%" method. In light of the impressive power that vast retailers have in the channel, it is hard for producers to proclaim a suitable returns stipend and stick to it. For instance, if a producer is pitching item to Kmart, and sets a six percent returns top, Kmart would consent to that top if the profits of the producer item don't surpass six percent. Truth be told, Kmart would likely be extremely cheerful if its real returns rate was two percent while it was accepting credit for six percent returns. Kmart would have the capacity to utilize the extra return top cash as a refund. In any case, if the producer sets a two percent return top and the real return rate is six percent, Kmart is not liable to agree to the producer's set return top rate. The retailer would rather demand that the producer cover the whole six percent returns. Due to the energy of the substantial retailers, most producers are not in a position to contend about the arrival top rate. This combined with the powerlessness of the producer to really control the demeanor of the item implies that, the retailer has fewer hazards than the producers from a zero returns program. A compelling zero returns programs require that both the purchaser and merchant genuinely comprehend what their real expenses are. 2.7.6. REMANUFACTURE AND REFURBISHMENT Thierry, et al. (1995) characterized five classifications of remanufacture and repair. These five classifications appeared in Table below repair, renovating, remanufacturing, cannibalization, and reusing. The initial three classes: repair, renovating, and remanufacturing, include item recondition and update. These alternatives vary as for the level of change. Repair includes minimal measure of push to overhaul the item, and remanufacture involves a lot. Cannibalization is basically the recuperation of a confined arrangement of reusable parts from utilized items (short item life cycle, because of the presentation of new item or else obsolete item). Reusing is the reuse of materials that were a piece of another item or subassembly. Remanufacturing and repairing of utilized item is on the ascent. Indeed, even NASA shuttle are being worked with remanufactured and renovated apparatuses. Refurbishment is the renovation and redistribution of returned products to the manufacturer or vendor for various reasons. Refurbished products are normally tested for functionality and defects before they are sold. It is repaired from manufacturer and resold 2.7.7. ASSET RECOVERY Asset Returns: asset returns consist of the recapture and repositioning of an asset. These returns are typically characterized as items that management wants to see returned. Categories that fall within asset returns are repositioning of an asset such as drilling equipment, and reusable containers vehicles, bicycles, Coleman etc. 2.7.8. NEGOTIATION Bargaining making is a key portion of the reverse logistics process. In the forward stream of merchandise, costs are regularly set by brand administrators and promoting authorities. Reverse logistics frequently incorporates a haggling stage, where the estimation of returned material is consulted without valuing rules. These arrangements might be taken care of freely. Likewise, at least one of the arrangement accomplices frequently does not completely comprehend the genuine estimation of the returned materials, making open doors for specialist third parties to work on the edge. These third parties frequently utilize a portion of the most honed logisticians. This third party would demonstrate in a counseling ability to the essential members of the reverse network who are attempting to exchange responsibility for material back to the first source. Additionally, the third party can deal with the physical handling of the materials. Organizations, By and large, a similar third party does not deal with the esteem transactions and physical handling of the item for both the retailer and the upstream producer. There are exemptions to this govern, yet typically retailers and producers need distinctive third party to follow up for their sake to wipe out potential irreconcilable situation. 2.7.9. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Budgetary administration issues are the essential determinants in the structure of reverse logistics system and the way in which item is manned. Most firms need to enhance inner bookkeeping forms. Bookkeeping issues drive the activities of directors. In fan milk Ghana limited, in this research, bookkeeping issues drove stores manager to avoid typical return frameworks. In these cases, inner strategies and controls moved them to wasteful, wrong practices. Regularly, the cost of profits is charged against the business division. While this approach may for the most part be a sensible one, it can complicate reverse logistics processes. On the off chance that business work force are punished for returns, they will make a special effort to back off or crush the brisk acknowledgment of profits and the fast disposition of returned material. Issues identified with charge backs and main concern obligation regarding returns must be a key thought when building up a decent reverse logistics management framework. Dealing with what a provider is to be paid, when arrangements and advancements are figured in, can be a test. Be that as it may, returns are regularly the main issue in accommodating records receivables. Due to these difficulties, third parties have begun to specialize in handling accounting and reconciliation issues. 2.7.10. OUTSOURCING REVERSE LOGISTICS In general, outsourcing can be described as the transfer of activities that were previously conducted in-house, to a third party. Ellram and Billington (2001) see outsourcing primarily as: The transfer of the production of goods or services that had been performed internally to an external party’. A wider definition is reported by NEVI (2000): Outsourcing means that the company divests itself of the resources to fulfil a particular activity to another company to focus more effectively on its own competence. The difference with subcontracting is the divestment of assets, infrastructure, people and competencies. Many organizations are outsourcing most or the greater part of their supply chain operations. Some of these organizations are extending their outsourcing to reverse logistics operations. These organizations are utilizing their reverse logistics outsource provider as a benchmark to help figure out what and how reverse activities ought to be performed, and how much those activities ought to cost. Regularly, these outsource providers perform reverse activities well, and their clients find that utilizing these administration firms lessen the regulatory bother of doing it without anyone's help. These outsource providers have progressed toward becoming masters in dealing with the reverse flow, and performing key value-added services, such as remanufacturing and renovating. Examples; coca cola bottling and Guinness Ghana limited contracting (outsourcing) it assets returns or (recovery), such as crates, bottles sorting and transportation to DHL and others. 2.8. USING REVERSE LOGISTICS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction happens when the organizations meet or outperform customer wants. Frankly, in light of current conditions, customers regularly contemplate having their perception, organization (benefit procedures) and support essentials met, and significantly less about how their suppliers do it. What customers genuinely need is to have their voices heard - and from that point forward, have their suppliers/providers truly make a move (i.e., they have to get happens). Most companies utilize their supply chain and reverse logistics management tool as market differentiators. The reason for existing is to keep customers so content with their product and activities, sometimes as of late, in the midst of, and taking after the main transport, that they remain devoted to their suppliers, repurchasing their items or possibly benefits again, and yet again, and yet again. Be that as it may, in the last mentioned, the assessment depends on the client's aggregate pre-and post-buy involvement with the organization's items, administrations and support after some time (i.e., this "signify customer understanding"). Firms that incorporate new advancements, for instance: UPC scanner labels, RFIDs, etc. Into their return management are all things considered more inclined to develop and keep up strong customer relation over the long time in the manner of their development enhanced limits. 2.8.1 The principal attributes that eventually separate one Logistics Company (and its reverse logistic process) from another may be classified basically as follows. 1. Dexterous/ Agile Adaptability, or how well (and how rapidly) the organization can react to changes in its client or showcase requests and, thus, build up the new logistics procedures, items and administrations required to meet (and surpass) the channel members. 2. Inventory Management, The capacity to oversee both the cost and the accessibility of inventories adequately to the need and wants of the members’ satisfactions 3. Cycle Times, the time it takes the company to satisfy members and related exercises, both on the inbound and return management sides; 2. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), the utilization of the most proper, auspicious and precise measurements for measuring execution (and consumer loyalty) on a progressing premise and. 3. Market Position and Presence, The limit of the relationship to develop, keep up and propel its coordination (reverse management) capacities and qualities both to its present customers and to the business focus with everything taken into account. For instance, if a firm does not have the most ideal reverse logistics set up, either in light of the way that they are not the best methodology, or they don't exist inside the firm by any extend of the creative ability, then it will be basically unequipped for giving the administration and reinforce its customers require. Moreover, paying little notice to how reasonable and all around arranged the systems may be, if they don't move the customers' products out and back quickly enough, shopper dependability will toward the day's end raise its immense head. Finally, if the firm can't evaluate either its own specific pivot supply operations or its customers' appraisals of its execution, then it will never know decisively where it stays in the minds of its customers or how to upgrade its operations to meet customer wants. 2.8.1. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION CONNECTION; Statistical survey has demonstrated that clients trust the accompanying ascribes to be of the best significance for both forward and reverse logistics: 1. Elimination of slow or lost shipments 2.Elimination of shipment discrepancies 3.Improved profit margins through the use of optimization tools 4. Reduction of inventory carrying costs for the customer 5.Support for its customers' efforts to reduce inventory investments, 6.Significantly reduced product/part returns, 7.Improved customer service and satisfaction through: ? Improved delivery reliability ? Improved efficiencies in customers' shipping/receiving operations ? One version of the "truth" for dispute resolution 2.8.2. Regardless, for there is truly be a "bond," or "relationship," between the reverse logistics organizations provider and its customers, there must in like manner be the going with shared characteristics 1. Mutually high expectations for the success of the partnership 2. Mutual loyalty 3. Framework/capability for technical data/information exchange (e.g., EDI) 4. Willingness to share risks/provide assistance in critical situations 5. Willingness to negotiate/mediate differences of opinion/interpretation 6. Use of joint provider/user task forces/teams 7. Two-way, frequent communications and feedback channels 8. Joint performance monitoring and tracking (i.e., against pre-set goals) 2.9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RL PRACTICES AND PROFITABILITY OF THE COMPANY Every firm is most worried with its profitability; a standout amongst the most every now and again utilized instruments of money related proportion investigation is benefit proportions which are utilized to decide the organization's main concern and its arrival to its speculators (Jensen and Webster, 2009). Profitability measures are imperative to organization directors and proprietors particularly in deciding the monetary execution of a firm and basic leadership. Productivity proportions demonstrate an organizations general effectiveness and execution. Productivity proportions can be separated into two sorts: edges and returns. Proportions that show edge speak to the organizations capacity to make an interpretation of offers in cedis into benefits at different phases of estimation. Proportions that show returns speak to the company's capacity to gauge the general productivity of the firm in creating returns for its shareholders (Lim and Lovell, 2009). Reverse logistics process profoundly adds to benefit of firms; already most firms particularly producing firms lost a considerable measure of profit. Today, return management is seen by most firms as a method for recouping lost benefits. Okoli and Pawlowski (2004), profitability investigation is a vital method for surveying management activities and proposed changes to a company's strategic frameworks (Richey, Genchev and Daugherty, 2005). Profitability studies goes past aggregate cost assessment by joining the income effect of calculated exercises. For instance, an enhanced level of administration may achieve expanded income as clients react to larger amounts of returns. Such changes must be incorporated with calculated framework activities. Moreover, the effect of advantages, for example, stock levels, debt claims and settled calculated resources ought to be joined into an exhaustive productivity investigation approach (Mueller, 1990). Basic return management capacities can cost organizations millions in lost benefits because of harmed client connections and outer liabilities that could enormously affect their business. Successfully oversaw, notwithstanding, return management activities can empower associations to discover shrouded benefits, enhance consumer loyalty and limit liabilities. Fleischmann and Kuik (2003), is that the normal producer will spend9% to 15% of aggregate income on returns, as indicated by a 2010 Aberdeen Group think about. They are frequently ignorant of the effect returns administration can have on their clients, their assets or their primary concern. Actually, enhancing reverse activities operations can help organization improve income up to 5% of aggregate deals (Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro, 2004). Reverse logistic practices assume a vital part of recovering the estimation of returned items or legitimately discarding them. An open door with this request of greatness has affected many organizations to push the limits of incorporated Reverse logistic practices to discover better approaches to streamline operations, drive benefits, and enjoyment clients. On top of that, some ground breaking organizations have made new lines of income through their aptitude in giving incorporated Reverse logistic benefits that sliced through the boundaries (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). Fawcett et al. (1995) contend that Reverse logistic practices can incorporate picking up input to make upgrades and to enhance the comprehension of genuine purposes behind item give back, this assume an imperative part in the development of an association prompting money related, natural and societal increases. 2.10. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK From the basis of this study, the independent variables affect the dependent variable, which is profitability of manufacturing firms (industry) in Ghana. To this extent therefore, increase in profitability in manufacturing firms in Ghana, depends on how effective the manufacturing firms implement reverse logistics practices. The conceptual model indicated below will be used to explain the reverse logistics practices and how they will be used to lead to an increase in profitability of fan milk Ghana limited. DRIVERS: PROCESSES: ACTIVITIES: ELEMENTS: RESULTS: 2.11. CONTRIBUTIONS ON REVERSE LOGISTICS By reviewing the reverse logistics literature, I found some topics that are commonly studied by researchers which are worth knowing in order to get a general idea of what has been studied and what hasn’t. I will do a brief review of these research topics in this section. Early reverse logistics researchers seem to be more focus on the large-scale view of reverse logistics; most of their work went into the whole process of reverse flow. For example, (Kim et. al., 2007) studied on BOM (bill-of-material) restructuring and the development of bills of material to serve to challenges of remanufacturing. His study suggested that the forecasting of sales has to be fine-tuned to reflect the uncertainty and variety of core returns for both salvaged and new parts. Traditionally, manufacturers did not feel responsible for their products after they were sold to the consumers. The greater part of utilized items were dumped or burned with significant harm to the earth. Today, consumers and authorities experts anticipate that, producers will diminish the waste created by their items. Therefore, waste management has gotten expanding consideration. Recently, attention has been moving towards recovery, because of the high costs and environmental burdens of disposal. Firms turn out to be increasingly in charge of gathering, destroying and updating of utilized items and bundling materials. (RevLog, 1998), Webb (1994) discussed the “green movement”, he indicated that more environmental concerns are influencing reverse logistics activities, e.g. packaging regulation, customer preferences, these environmental issues are becoming big concerns about reverse logistics. Some literature addressed the focus on reverse logistics concerning product handling, e.g. transportation, inventory management, and distribution. White (1994) described importance of reverse logistics for material handling; material handling contains moving, storing, protecting and controlling materials. He indicated that, in the material handling system, protection is the first priority. Dawe (1995) viewed return management as the best opportunity to differentiate customer service and create a competitive advantage for a firm. In order to take the opportunity, Dawe (1995) suggested that the most needed reengineering factors are return process and warehousing operations. Fuller & Allen (1996) asserts that, waste is an unavoidable by-product of resource-conversion processes in the economic system and materials are recycled as part of a resource program that supports sustainable development in efforts to manage waste. The use of information on systematic way will help reverse channel networks for recyclable materials, and the lobbying efforts to support the passage of a recycling bill. Some researcher put reverse logistics practice into quantitative models. For instance, Clegg, Williams, & Uzsoy (1995) presented a linear programming model to investigate the effects of recycling and remanufacturing on companies? operations. One of the more interesting and significant trends in supply chain management is the recognition of the strategic importance of reverse logistics operations. (Retzlaf and others, 1997) These reverse logistics operations support a variety of activities ranging from what is termed “green logistics,” i.e., “efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the supply chain” to activities that encompass product returns, repairs, and refurbishment. (Daugherty and others, 2001) Firms can use this model to analyze the viability of the recovered parts in remanufacturing operations (Clegg et al, 1995). Aside for the above example, there are many other quantitative models contributed by various researchers (Fleischmann et al., 1997; Guide Jr, Srivastava, & Spencer, 1996; Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). These models can be used to improve numerous dimensions of reverse logistics practices, such as, extending product life cycles, protecting product failures, etc... Another commonly studied topic of logistics research is the application of reverse logistics. Kroon &Vrijens (1995) focus their attention on the waste avoidance, they asserted that “a change in attitude towards the environment is an absolute necessity”, and they proposed a whole process of “collection, recycling and reuse of products and materials” (Kroon & Vrijens, 1995). Autry et al. (2001) looked at the catalog retailing industry, investigating how reverse logistics performance and satisfaction with reverse logistics service are influenced by factors such as firm size, sales volume, and internal/external assignment of disposition. They came up with practical results suggesting that “neither performance nor satisfaction was significantly influenced by location of responsibility for disposition” (Autry et al., 2001). A recent study conducted by Breen (2006) analyzed the customer compliance in reverse logistics practices. This cross-industry study reported that without customer compliance, efficacy of the reverse logistics system can be seriously undermined; the losses are reported up to 144 million pounds. These literatures cover a wide range of topics, but there are some issues left out due to the time and financial constraints and would have been useful if addressed. To be more specific, these research mostly focus on industrial level issues, majority of articles are short and lack the depth to demonstrate the level of integration necessary to implement reverse logistics to functional areas such as consumer market. Marketing research on the other hand, frequently focuses on the customer, tend to neglect operational, supply chain issues (Mollenkopf et al., 2007). This study is conducted in hope to redress these shortcomings by linking the reverse logistics and marketing issue in the context of end-customer. Source: Mohammed shaik 2.12. SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW AND KNOWLEDGE GAP REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE. There are no exact writing incorporates the requirement for reverse logistics management practices and how it impacts benefit of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. No Previous reviews lay more concrete or concentrate on reverse logistics management and execution; the reviews did not address issues of reverse logistics management practices and gainfulness of food and beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana. The researcher therefore thinks that it’s important to address this issue by assessing reverse logistics management practices utilized by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana and the relationship between reverse logistics management practices, productivity (profitability) and environmental issues of by food and beverages manufacturing industry in Ghana. Reverse logistics management practices is one of the courses in which beverage manufacturing firms in Ghana can use to build their benefit through making most extreme utilization of their waste items and materials to deliver esteem included merchandise and enterprises at a lessened cost which consequently will prompt to enhanced consumer satisfaction and hence loyalty, increase market share and revenue and ultimately profitability of the firms. Recent studies show that, there is no specific Performance variable that adds to return management. There is no definite framework of return management performance measurement. There are no studies on evaluation as to how the return management organizations can implement return management successfully. Strategy, process, capabilities and perspectives, and their sub criteria attributes are very important strategic issues to the top management; there is no evidence about feather research on that, less to talk about its importance on the return management in supply chain management

07/07/2017 Tania Campoverde
El género de Salmonella se ubica dentro del orden de la Enterobacterias y de la familia enterobacteriacea. Son bacilos Gram negativos generalmente móviles en forma de vara. Algunas de estas bacterias son responsables de muchas enfermedades en los seres humanos y otros animales, más comúnmente intoxicación por alimentos y la fiebre tifoidea. La salmonella vive en los intestinos de los mamíferos, aves y reptiles, y es generalmente inofensiva. (1) (2) La salmonelosis es una de las enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria más común y ampliamente extendida, y cada año provoca decenas de millones de casos en todo el mundo. La mayoría de los casos de salmonelosis son leves, aunque, en ocasiones, la enfermedad puede causar defunción. La gravedad de la enfermedad depende de factores propios del huésped y de la cepa de Salmonella en cuestión. (3) En el continente Americano, cada año, se reportan aproximadamente 150.000 casos de salmonelosis en América y de estos, alrededor de 1.000 personas mueren cada año por causa de la salmonelosis aguda. (1) En Ecuador según el Ministerio de Salud Pública en el presente año se ha notificado 20 casos de Salmonelosis, los mismos que en su mayoría fueron reportados en la provincia de Manabí. El grupo de edad más afectado es de 20 a 49 años, mayoritariamente el sexo femenino la relación mujer-hombres de 2:1.La provincia de Manabí acumula l23, 1% (115casos) del total de casos notificados a nivel nacional hasta la fecha. En la provincia del Azuay y del Cañar se notifica 24 casos de salmonelosis. (3) La manifestación clínica más común de una enfermedad transmitida por los alimentos consiste en la aparición de síntomas gastrointestinales, pero estas enfermedades también pueden dar lugar a síntomas neurológicos, ginecológicos, inmunológicos y de otro tipo. La ingestión de alimentos contaminados puede provocar una insuficiencia multiorgánica, incluso cáncer, por lo que representa una carga considerable de discapacidad, así como de mortalidad. (4) La OMS promueve el fortalecimiento de los sistemas de inocuidad de los alimentos, las buenas prácticas de elaboración y la información de los vendedores y consumidores acerca de la adecuada manipulación de los alimentos, y la prevención de la contaminación. La información de los consumidores y la capacitación de los manipuladores de alimentos para la manipulación segura de los productos son algunos de los medios más eficaces para prevenir enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, entre ellas la salmonelosis. (3) Salmonelosis está asociada frecuentemente con enfermedades gastrointestinales, difundidas directamente por carne contaminada o que la misma se encuentre mal cocida; por ello se expone el objetivo del presente trabajo. Como es de conocimiento de muchos pobladores se expende carne cocida de cerdo en varios restaurantes al aire libre en el sector de San Camilo, siendo de gran afluencia los fines de semana promoviendo un mayor consumo. Siendo así como parte de un problema, ya que se observa malas prácticas de manufactura para el procesamiento y el expendio de dicho alimentos, y así con el estudio se podrá identificar los puntos de venta con mayor incidencia con la bacteria (Salmonella), que resulta un peligro para la ciudadanía.

10/12/2016 wellinton
A indicação de espécies de plantas de cobertura do solo, especialmente leguminosas e gramíneas, depende da resistência de seus resíduos, após o manejo, o que influencia a manutenção da cobertura. As leguminosas constituem uma das espécies mais usadas como plantas de cobertura. Essas variedades têm como garantia contribuições consideráveis na viabilidade econômica e sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção, pois tem capacidades de realizar a fixação biológica de nitrogênio eficientemente. Esses tipos de plantas tem potencial de adição de N, sendo, também, importantes para o sequestro de carbono (C) no solo. Neste caso, ocorreria redução da necessidade da aplicação de nitrogênio sintético (SISTI et al., 2004).

08/02/2016 Dr Abdullahi Audu Malgwi
I am the current Head of Department of Accounting , University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. I would like you to assist me with your free flags arise checker to assess the level of students flags arise of their projects. Thanks alot

05/16/2016 tlaleng
Communication is a two process that involves interaction between a receiver and a sender. It is use to deliver a message for us to convey or convince another individual for better understanding. At work, an effective communication builds a strong relationship among co-workers and reduces patient’s anxiety. Communication serves as important tool in displaying our own emotions, thoughts and ideas which can be observe through verbal and non-verbal cues. Different techniques can be practice when communicating. It this reflection “My Professional Communication Practices” I recognized nurse-patient interaction process and it covers different communication tools that is usually practice here in King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital. Including the AIDET (Acknowledge, Introduce, Duration, Explanation, and Thank You) which is a simple but powerful communication tool. Also, ISBAR (Identify, Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation) is a common instrument that is usually use among healthcare professionals for collaborative management especially during endorsement. And Nursing Huddle is briefly discuss in this chapter. Nevertheless, it provides also importance of effective communication by using communication etiquette. I. USING THE NURSE-PATIENT INTERACTION PROCESS Building and establishing a nurse-patient relationship is very crucial part for us nurses. We need to find ways on how to initiate an interaction and use effective technique during conversation. A nurse-patient interaction consists verbal and non-verbal cues which are important to an effective communication. We must to be constantly determine and observe this cues during the discussion or interaction. The chance of increasing the effectivity of services delivered is base also from the Nurse-patient interaction. It is a front liner in developing conversation and build rapport to our patient. It will take confidence and initiative to deal with different kind of clients. Being a person who’s dealing with life of other individual it is necessary for us to have a good background in communicating and know different effective techniques to build a good interpersonal relationship. Peplau believed that the relationship depended on the interaction of the thoughts, feelings, and actions of each person and that the patient will experience better health when all their specific needs are fully considered in the relationship. And this thoughts, feelings and actions provided by our patient can be easily observe through effective nurse-patient interaction. In order for us to become effective we must need to go on the phases of nurse-patient interaction which includes the following: Orientation phase wherein the individual has a felt need and seeks professional assistance. The nurse helps to recognize and understand his/her problem and determine the need for help, Identification phase- the patient identifies who can help him/her. The nurse permits exploration of feelings to aid the patient in undergoing illness as an experience that reorients feelings and strengthens positive forces in the personality and provides need satisfaction, Exploitation phase- during this phase, the patient attempts to derive full value from what he/she are offered through the relationship. The nurse can project new goals to be achieved through personal effort and power shifts from the nurse to the patient as the patient delays gratification to achieve the newly formed goals, and lastly, the resolution phasethe patient gradually puts aside old goals and adopt new goals. This is a process in which the patient frees himself from identification with the nurse. Through nurse-patient interaction we can build a strong relationship with the use of different communication tools. A. An Excellent Nurse-Patient Interaction To build and achieve effective communication we must give importance on both verbal and non-verbal cues provided during nurse-patient interaction. It is required for us to assess both subjective and objective data. It is an operative way in assessing and evaluating what does our patient really manifest or feels about her condition, and for us to provide the best care to our patients, reducing their anxieties and building a trustful and respectful environment. If we are effective in communicating with our patient, they may feel relax, comfortable and at ease to tell their own problems or concerns. I experienced an excellent Nurse-patient interaction often, it’s been my practice to build rapport and to create a good-working relationship with my patients, family and relatives. Upon entering the room I smiled to them and provided an eye contact and I acknowledged the presence of the family. I continued having conversation with my patient by introducing myself first with the patient and family and asked my patient how is he today and how does he feel. In this way I can secure the subjective data provided by my patient. I involved also the family in the interaction and ask if there any concerns or help they needed. Empathy and kindness was displayed during the interaction and I showed gestures that convey my patient that he can trust me. The family answered me that they don’t have anything concerns about and their patient is alright but I observe that my patient who’s postoperatively is uncomfortable and he’s in pain. At this time, I continually assessed my patient and get his vital signs. I refer to his attending physician and check his medication prescribed for pain. Being a keen observant and the use proper techniques of communication I was able to introduce an excellent nursepatient interaction. In this way, I possibly intervene ahead of time regarding the pain that my patient feels. Effective communication helps me to provide a good quality of care to my 2 patient particularly in giving therapeutic care and alleviating patient’s suffering. B. A Negative Experience on Nurse-Patient Interaction Sometimes we omit to do what is right and forget to prioritize our patient or to involve the family in the plan of care. It is common to all of us to have personal problems, and this problems is accompanied during working hours. Not only for that, emergency situations are hard to handle and we cannot think clearly and effectively. This are the factors that we can feel anxious, angry and can change our mood. Yet, we always says that we must not include personal issues in working area but we cannot help it because it is our own weakness to become emotional when it comes to our live ones. Our problems in life is an example of barrier to an effective communication and building excellent nurse-patient interaction. This is what I have experienced during the death of my father. It was happened during my first year of experience here in Saudi. While I’m on my duty I received a message from my mother saying that my father is already in God’s hands. It was a shocking revelation, I got sad, cried and I don’t know what to do. I want to go home in the Philippines immediately to a fastest way I can without thinking that I have a patient also waiting and depending on me. My colleagues comforted me and provided a support system that they are really there to support me to go along with the grieving process. I’m really afraid of losing someone and being away with family made the scenario more difficult for me. My colleagues already provided the routine task with my four patients including tube feedings, suctioning, and repositioning every two hours. I am blessed and very thankful having them and their presence during the time that I received the message about the death of my father. I realized that I have the obligation to finish my work and I’m still accountable with the life of my patients. So, I visited them before my shift ends, my patient was asking me where did I go. Why I didn’t attend to his calls? At this moment I portrait a negative nurse-patient interaction by providing him a sharp-look and never answered his questions. I feel bad about what happened and I don’t know on how to interact with other people properly because I’m about to cry. What inside my mind is to go home and I need to call my family. I know that this situation of worst scenario of providing negative patient interaction because of the situation I’m handling. I didn’t able to meet the expectations form my patients. I didn’t provide the quality of care they needed. I ’m being self-centered and my mind is being focused on what had happened. I admit my fault of being irresponsible that time and being thankful that my patients and colleagues provides me understanding as I go along with the grievance and healing process. C. Use of Therpaeutic Relationship Building relationship is considered as a framework in our working area. It involve proper communication which serves as a pre-requisite in establishing therapeutic relationship. We should know ways on how to develop an interpersonal skills to build a strong and therapeutic relationship because poor interpersonal relationship can harm the quality of care and prevent the health team in achieving the goals. For us to develop a therapeutic relationship we must be skillful and know several techniques. Which includes the following: 1. BUILDING TRUST- Trust is considered as a key important in building a therapeutic relationship. It is the most needed tool for us to build teamwork in the area and the patient will be able to provide information regarding his situation, pain or any related issues. It is a vague feeling to have poor interaction between a nurse and patient because of lacking of trust. We will not be able to truly understand the patient if he will not be able to declare his feelings or emotions because of the hesitation to provide the legal information. For me as a nurse, in order to build trust not only to my colleagues but also with my patient I must be able to maintain confidentiality and never divulge personal information to others without any permission or if it is against the law/policy. Sometimes first impression lasts to other person, so, during the first nurse-patient interaction I should be providing adequate and accurate information and never give false assurances. I must be honest to what I am saying and what I am doing. I will not say any information if I am in doubt, it is better to become honest rather than pretending that I know the procedure even if it is not. Telling the truth is more important than giving promises, because this promises sometimes forget and failed to do. As a primary care giver I should be knowledgeable and skillful because most of the patient is giving trust to this kind of nurse, an effective and efficient nurse. I will always provide quality health care services for them to build trustworthy relationship. Whenever I’m performing procedure I should permission first and be able to explain the procedure before proceeding to touch the patient’s body. No one could entrust his health condition to any person who’s harsh and shows disrespect. 2. SHOWING GENUINE INTEREST- We nurses are the primary caregiver and always has a contact with our patients. So, nurses are expected to act in the best interests by providing their needs and health quality assurance. In showing genuine interests, I must know on how to listen with their problems, concerns and the true complaint of my patient. I must ensure that my client’s needs are met, be able to maintain boundaries, and to act professionally. I must observe the value of being patient advocate and being accountable. I will continually show respect with their own decisions. Whatever services I give it must come from my heart and not for any other intention like financial gain or recognition. It involves also on how I treated my patient, my behavior while taking care of them, and my attitude towards them. I need to be an open-minded person and engage myself to a nurse-patient relationship by active listening, patientoriented, being polite and displays punctuality to achieve highest patient’ satisfaction. 3. SHOWING EMPATHY- One way of understanding our patient’s feelings, needs, and concerns is to show empathy. It helps us to learn more about the situation of our patient and increase a therapeutic relationship between a nurse and a client. I must understand clearly the needs of my patient by using effective 3 communication techniques and imagining myself in their own situation. Whenever my patient is in my pain, I must see it as real and will never think it as a joke or being too emotional, I should be able to see myself in her situation having a disease who experiencing pain or suffering. I’m going to respond to their complaint and will never ignore it. As a healthcare provider I can show empathy by showing greatness and being compassionate in delivering health care services with my patient. Also, when patient is in trouble to stand because of his disability I should be considerate in helping him no matter how busy I am because I must understand his difficulties he’s experiencing. I do not judge him personally no matter his past history why he gets the injury. It is becoming on how I become responsible in the taking the health of other individual especially my patient. 4. CONVEYING ACCEPTANCE- Our communication skills is very important in building a positive nursepatient interaction. It is how we show our interest with the condition of the patient like being attentive and to convey acceptance. Most importantly, during communication non-verbal form like gestures when approaching the patient has a great impact during interaction. Our own actions and behavior are ways on how to convey acceptance by my patient. I cannot say even any health teachings to my patient if I myself was not be able to accomplish the task like saying them to stop cigarette smoking because it’s dangerous to their health and they can acquire different diseases if the patient sees you smoking at public places during break time. My action is very important in conveying acceptance, I need to become attentive with their needs. Never get rid with promises and false assurances, if I’m going to say I will come back after 30 minutes then I need to go back before or at exact time. I should never lie them even once. 5. GIVING POSITIVE REGARD- Patients connotes that when entering the hospital they are having dilemma regarding their health and experiencing depression or vague emotional state. They are seeking attention for them to become better. They are expressing their utmost bad experience of having trouble and difficulties about their on-going condition. And we nurses, has a great challenge and job to work to help them during the hospitalization and be able to give positive regard. I need to become attentive to the feelings of my patient, once again I will never give assurances that they will gain their health exactly the same before. I need to know on how to managing up my colleagues and we are there to guide and support her and her family. I should understand the stress provided to them by having the disease, a patient might relieve if she knows our utmost intention and willingness to help them during the disease process. Any procedure that I’m going to perform I should ask permission first and inform them what I’m going to do, why it is necessary and/or possible giving the disadvantages and advantages of the treatment. My patient stays as my center of giving service but I need to involve also the family in making decision and to become part of taking care the patient and should never let them to feel down and they should remain strong for the sake of the patient. 6. MY SELF-AWARENESS- One way on how to deliver a healthcare services is knowing our own behavior, traits, personality and have a better understanding with our characteristics and values in life. No matter who we are, even nurses need to evaluate ourselves and how far we can go beyond our capabilities. Self-awareness is knowing ourselves better. During the care of our patient we can never determine the main problem if we ourselves don’t know on how to focus. Sometimes transference happened, in which the nurse is adapting the behavior of his patient. She can never determine his own and neglect to evaluate his own capacity. For me, I need to know my weaknesses and my strengths while taking care of my patient. I should know my limitations between my relationships with my clients. Proper selfevaluation is attribute to understand more what care I can provide to my patient and how can I create a good environment for my patient. Being self-aware I know how skillful I am and my knowledge in taking care of other people. Being aware of myself has enabled me to improve my skills in communication and to become part of the collaborative team. Knowing my own capabilities, I can easily relate myself with the experience of my patient. 7. THERAPEUTIC USE OF SELF- An excellent nursepatient interaction is more effective when we know how to involve therapeutic use of self. As we know, communication practices is a two-way process that involves proper interrogation and interaction. I can say that having therapeutic use of self gives me better understanding how can I enter myself within the vicinity of taking care of my patient and never go beyond limitations. My experience encompasses in helping me to become more productive, active and alert when delivering care to my patient. I need to recognized and respect each other differences, showing humility and flexible while giving care to my patient. I can incorporate myself in giving advice basing form my own knowledge and experience in life. To be a health counselor not only with the patient but also to the family who needs my support also. Through humor, I can uplift the patient’s and family’s emotions and spirit. II. THE AIDET PROCESS In creating a positive and therapeutic relationship with our patient we should know on to deliver our message in clear and accurate. We should provide an effective communication by using tools that could serve as a framework in increasing high quality of care in healthcare delivery system such as AIDET. AIDET process is a simple yet a powerful communication tool that will help all the employees here in KAAUH to have a better understanding and will create an environment/community that is different from other institution and this will make KAAUH as unique. It is short but detailed that can build a strong relationship to another individual. AIDET stands for (Acknowledge, Introduction, Duration, Explanation, and Thank You). 4 A. Aknowledging Acknowledging makes the person feel more important. It is the phase wherein you will build rapport by smiling, eye contact and give a short “hi” or “hello” to the patient or family. Their presence must be acknowledge and they have the right to be treated well. It is proper and right to give them attention and show them the initiative or willingness to help using verbal and non-verbal form of communication. With in-patient it is necessary during this phase to identify the patient politely and acknowledge always the presence of the family. If we know already the name of the patient, he/she makes feel special if we will be going to address with his/her name. Me: While smiling or having an eye contact “Hello Sir Mohammad.. Good morning!! How are you today, how can I help you, anything that bothers you? Patient: “Goodmorning too. I am good. How about you?” Me: “Thank you for asking. I’m very fine Sir” B. Introduce The next phase is to introduce our self to the patient and to his family. We must tell our name, a brief introduction regarding your role here in KAAUH and should state our purpose why you are there. The patient may feel better and comfortable if he knows who’s he is talking too and don’t have the feeling of strange. In this part, the patient have an understanding that you can guide him and he will not hesitate or bother to ask help. It is the process of letting your patients and families know that you and healthcare team are going to take care of them. By giving your name initiates an open communication telling that you are willing to help the patient to any matters. It signifies that you’re there to guide him with the process or whatever help he needs. Also, here in KAAUH it is in our policy to wear our name badge facing forward all the time. So the patient will be able to know and recognized us. Me: “I am Mizael Shareign Q. Marcos. I am your nurse for the next 12 hours, I will be the one to take care of you. Whatever I can do to help you please don’t hesitate to ask help. You can call me by my name or you can use the call system, I’ll be here to assist you”. Patient: “Alright. I am thankful that somebody is there for us.” Me: “You’re always welcome Sir Mohammad”. Please take a rest. C. Duration Duration tells us on how long does the procedure will take or how long we’re going to assist and hours of stay to our patient. It is necessary to estimate the time we can allot to our patient and never give promises or false assurance that you there anytime even we cannot. Sometimes, nurses forget to say or never want to say that he is still busy and cannot attend to the call of our patient but on their part they are more disappointed if no one is attending with their calls. We should never forget to involve the family in this process, we can inform them on behalf of the patient example if the patient is sleeping. Let them know what time you will be available especially when you are taking another patient also. Never let the patient and the family waits for you. The availability of the patient during the procedure must also be considered because sometimes patient are having their meal and when suddenly the doctor ordered for a STAT medication. Me: “Sir Mohammad, Can I have your time? I am going to take your vital signs and it will take 5-10 minutes of your time. If it is ok with you? Patient: “Can I go to the bathroom first”? Me: Sure Sir. I’ll be waiting for you here. D. Expectation/s Our patients has the right to make decision regarding his health that’s why it is demand and obligation for us nurses that the patient will keep informed by explaining the process and the procedure. We should never neglect to inform them regarding the risk and the choices during the procedure. Our patients has the right to refuse. As necessary it is important to communicate step by step, not necessarily to finish the procedure in the fastest way we could but it should be satisfy the patient and will provide the quality of services they needed. It necessary to listen with their feelings and any concern. So try to talk, listen and learn from the patient. At the end never forget to ask again what more we can do for them. Me: “Sir I’m taking your vital signs for me to have a baseline data regarding your condition and this will be part of my assessment. I’ll be going to use this machine “telemetry” to take your vital signs. All the findings will be appear in the monitor/screen and it will documented to your files. I’ll be going to take your temperature first by putting the thermometer below your tongue. Did you take any cold or warm drinks 10 minutes ago? It will takes show many seconds until a beep sound. I will be also getting your blood pressure by putting the BP cuff in your upper arm, you can feel a squeezing while the reading is ongoing. It will take a minute for us to finish in taking the blood pressure. Sir, I’ll be holding your wrist to get your pulse rate for a minute. (No information given while taking the Respiratory rate so that the patient can’t manipulate his respiration). And lastly, this pulse oximeter is useful in taking your oxygen saturation in your body. I’ll be place the probe on your fore finger. You will not feel any pain from the minimal pinching during the procedure. If it is ok to proceed with the procedure Sir? Do you have any concern regarding the procedure? Patient: “No. It’s okay with me, no problem. And thank you for the information Mizael”. Me: You’re always welcome Sir Mohammad”. E. Thank You Telling thank you is important that displays how we appreciate their time, express our appreciation for their cooperation and communication. Here in KAAUH, we are practicing to appreciate people who chose our services. It important that we should say thank you not only to the patient but also to the family. In this phase, we should be punctual and courteous in saying thank you and not in sarcastic way. Me: “Thank you very much Sir Mohammad for sharing your time and for cooperating with me, and thank you for choosing and trusting KAAUH. Have a good day”. Patient: “Welcome.” 5 III. THE SHARED FRAMEWORK KAAUH is aiming to give the best healthcare services to his customer by having effective and competitive employees. Though we need to consider different factors and ways in delivering this services including therapeutic relationship to coworkers, acceptance of our job and roles, collaboration and effective communication using a powerful tool. Aside from AIDET we practice also here in KAAUH to use SHARED. SHARED framework is a clinical handover adapted by our institution for us to improve the process of distributing patient information to other healthcare providers. A clinical handover as defined “it is the actual transfer of professional responsibility and accountability for some or all aspects of care for a patient, or group of patients, to another person or professional group on a temporary or permanent basis”. SHARED stands for Situation, History, Assessment, Risk, Expectation, and Documentation. This is a communication tool introduced here in KAAUH to be used by health care providers during nurse to nurse during endorsement which can be usually happened during admission, transfer, break time and endorsement. It provides a safe transfer of clinical information or data regarding our patient. By following the parts our work will be synchronized by providing clear and concise information relevant and critical in the health care practice. This communication tool helps the nurses to become more effective in assessing the status of the patient and anticipate the needs of the patient through the information provided by colleagues. It is a tool that allows effective communication among health care workers that allows cooperation, collaboration, increase quality services and patient satisfaction. A. Situation The situation of the patient is very important when reporting to a doctor, admission or during transfer of a patient. It is indicative on how we commit ourselves in giving directives. It involves necessary information such as the patient’s full name, MRN, the main reason for admission or the complaint of the patient and the diagnosis specific information. The process may take advantage during referrals to a physician or consultant when the patient has sudden change in her condition or status. Proper way of communication must take place by doing or performing AIDET first. It is important for us to be specific to the person we are talking to why we are doing the handover. We can include the situation of the patient includes the name, age, gender, height and weight of the patient. You also have to include the name of the physician who looks after the patient. For in-patients, you also need to include the length of stay of the patient in the unit or in the hospital as well as the precaution. My scenario will be an endorsement of out-going primary nurse to incoming primary nurse to in-patient unit such as the medical ward. Me: “Hello Nurse Jonna” Other Health Care Professional: “Hi Nurse Mizael” Me: “Good morning” Nurse Jonna are you ready to receive my endorsement?” Other Health Care Professional: “Yes, Iam”. Me: “Ok let’s proceed. For the Situation, the patient’s name is Mr. Mohammed Muhammad with MRN of 35467, a 55 years old male, 165 cm in height, and 50 kg. This patient is under the service of Dr. Ali Anas. The patient has a chief complaint of chest pain, high fever at night, sweating and persistent coughing for the last 5 days and with a diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) and placed in room 2.127 with isolation precaution. He was admitted yesterday, so this is his second day of stay in the hospital. B. History Once we have done with the situation, the next part would be H or the history the patient. It is vital to not to omit this part since it states the relevant history of the patient including his past medical history (e.g. Hypertension, pneumonia, or any lung condition), surgical history and the treatments or medications he has been taking for the past years to alleviate any symptoms/cure of disease. We can include how effective the treatments or medications the patients had taken. Important information relevant to the patient’s current condition can be provided here such as the patient’s blood group and previous laboratory, as well as the psychological status of the patient. For long-term care or critically ill patients, it is also important to specify whether the patient’s is on status of Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) or has Advance Directives and forms are properly secured. Me: “For the History, the patient diagnosed to have Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB). Yesterday Chest X-ray was done including skin testing and blood test. He has a history of upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) and pneumonia one year ago. The patient has no surgery or any accident. One month before his admission he actively participate with the medical mission to different community. The patient had fever of 38.7 Celsius at 0200H and received 1000 mg as per order. C. Assessment During clinical handover it is crucial for us to become participative. There’s nothing wrong when asking questions to the person endorsing to us. It is our obligation to receive the details pertaining to the current situation of the patient. We should act as a facilitator of learning during the process especially during the assessment process. The assessment consist the following information a.) Current observations b.) Results of any procedures such as x-ray, blood tests or diagnostic imaging, urine test, etc. c.) The severity of the condition or the occurrence d.) Medications. When endorsing the patient to your colleagues or to other members of the health care team, it is important to relay the recent assessment or observation. The assessment part includes the latest vital signs, oxygen saturation level and the pain scale of the patient. The intake, output, fluid balance and the last bowel movement of the patient is also included. You also need to endorse the diet and medication of the patient. The procedures done like MRI or CT SCAN and the pending blood tests should also be mentioned so as to avoid repetition. And of course, the contraptions like invasive lines, drains and tubes must also be mentioned. Me: “For the Assessment, the patient’s vital signs are as follows, Temperature is 38.0 0 C, Pulse Rate is 98 beats per minute, Respiratory Rate is 22 cycles per minute, Oxygen saturation is 96%. The patient also complains of chest pain and difficulty of breathing with a pain scale of 6 out of 10. Oxygen delivery via nasal cannula at 3 Lpm and positioned at high 6 fowler’s. He has an IV access at Left Metacarpal vein and ongoing IVF of PNSS 500ml at 80ml/hr hooked at 1800H. The physician ordered to administer the following medications: Isoniazid 300 mg per orem daily, ethambutol 800 mg per orem daily, and Panadol 1 gram per orem PRN. The patient has weakness on upper part of the body and placed in complete bed rest. Indwelling Foley catheter was inserted at 1400H yesterday for intake and output monitoring with urine output of 750 ml for the 24 hours his total fluid balance is 600mL. The patient has no bowel movement during my shift. Other Health Care Professional: “May I ask if there is any special procedures to be done today? Me: “None. Kindly observe the patient for the occurrence of chest pain and report immediately to the doctor”. D. Risk Patient safety has been impart to us heath care providers, everyone who is handling and taking care the patient has the obligation of doing “no harm” or the possibility of acquiring injuries due to unsafe procedures or malpractice. We, should not limit ourselves to become and empower our colleagues in making decisions regarding safety practice. It involves our ability in observing what is right and proper. Hazards must be remove away from the patient. Though the potentials hazards such as the patient status or condition cannot be immediately eliminated so keen and thorough assessment should be practice. During handover, it is also important to state the relevant and important information to keep the patient safe. We have to state the allergies of the patient using color coded bands approved by KAAUH, the risk for fall using Morse fall assessment, for infection control and standard precaution, deep vein thrombosis and pressure sores using Braden Scale assessment. We also need to mention if the patient has taken any sedatives that may cause him to be at risk for fall or any accidents. Me: “For the Risk, the patient is allergic to gentamycin but no known allergies to food. He has a weakness upper body and needs assistance all the time. Safety precautions should be initiated all the time as the patient is risk for falls. The patient has a braden scale score of 13 and in at risk of developing pressure ulcers. The patient position is on high fowlers and turning should be done every 2 hours. I would like to emphasize that the patient is on isolation precaution. Other health care provider: “Ok, I will notify all healthcare providers regarding the isolation precaution. And I will also ensure that the patient’s side rails will always be up and that his linens or bed sheet is dry and turning will be done every 2 hours. E. Expectation It is fulfilling for us healthcare provider if were able to meet our goal for the day, the expectations of others and to provide satisfaction to patient and family. It is important for us to develop humor of developing plan care for the day. If problems are developed or arise we need to create solutions. We need to anticipate responses and outcomes of all the interventions provided and further improve the health of the patient. We should not take the risk of putting the life of our patient by just doing experimental measures. For the continuity of patient care, it is vital to state the timeframe of our goal and who the people involved in the plan of care. Me: “For the Expectation, we need to provide special precaution regarding the condition of the patient. Maintain patent airway and promote lung expansion by positioning the patient to high fowler’s, also, assess the patient of developing chest pain. So, within the shift the patient will not be able to complaint any discomfort. Other health care provider: “I will conduct closely monitoring of vital signs and airway assessment regularly”. F. Documentation Like we always says “anything that has been done to the patient but it wasn’t recorded is considered not really done”. So, it is necessary to be vigilant and meticulous in doing documentation. This is the best proof for us working in health care institution in justifying our self. Documentation of every intervention done by the physician or the nurse or by any other health care provider is essential and is considered as a legal document. Documentation is the last part of SHARED. It consists relevant information written in the appropriate clinical record “trakCare or Downtime forms” and shares within the healthcare team during the process of transfer or endorsement. Me: “Nurse Jonna all the procedures done and interventions provided to the patient was already documented in the trakCare, medications given on time. Also, I already updated the patient board. Other Health Care Professional: “Ok Nurse Mizael, thank you for all the information provided”. IV. THE NURSING HUDDLE King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital is an institution that provides quality of health care services by having patient driven culture and excellence in care. The goals of our institution is important for us to commit our self to find ways in improving our services. Cooperation, teamwork and collaboration provides us the fastest way in achieving this goal. Proper use of skills and techniques is a key important to enhance in developing and boost communication. Communication plays an important role especially to an institution that was developed in order to provide care to the patient, family and to the community. We nurses, are the frontlines in delivering healthcare. We need to work hand in hand to achieve the best for our patient a reason why nursing huddle is developed. Nursing huddle is form of communication that increases patient’s safety, nurse and patient satisfaction and it builds a culture of trust among nurses. A nursing huddle is a quick discussion or meeting that is usually happened any time of the day. This process will take to a maximum time of 15 minutes to engage their self for any announcement or changes. It is important to improve our services. Everyone is encourage to talk or discuss their concerns or relevant issues regarding the work or unit. A huddle could be safety, emergent/immediate, or staff huddles. 7 We are usually doing nursing huddles in our unit lead by our Nurse Manager. It helps as to boost communication and teamwork. Our leaders provided relevant information regarding updates, plans, more information and involvement of task. They are encouraging all staff to follow the rules and regulations provided by the hospital and to abide the policies which can help us to become better employees of KAAUH. While doing nursing huddles we get to know each other’s attitude and personality which helps us to improve relationships among us. With ideas and plans develop by other members we achieving our goals in a safe, faster, and with high quality. V. THE COMMUNICATION ETIQUETTE Effective communication plays an important in our world. It involves the exchange of ideas or relaying of messages from a receiver and a sender which can be delivered through speaking, writing, gestures, and telephones/text or thru other means such us media or television. The message could be formal or informal is such way the receiver clearly understand the message provided by the sender. Communication serves as a link to understand each other and to involve ourselves in creating new ideas and trying to convince another person. It is a powerful tool in obtaining and exchanging of information using proper ways called such communication etiquette. Communication Etiquette is a set or preference when sending or receiving information from other person. The behavior or conduct displayed must be acceptable and shows respect to others. We must be genuine in conveying and convincing the receiver through politeness and proper manner. It is never been a choice for us professionals to behave on what we want but we must act accordingly and professionally. 1. E-Mail – Use of high technologies is growing up so fast. They are developed to help humans in making the work faster, to lessen effort and improves way of communicating such as sending e-mail. E-mail is a faster way of communicating to somebody and helps us to deliver the message immediately in any part of the world. It provides convenience to the sender because of the accessibility and the use of technologies. The receiver can provide reply immediately upon receiving and never get waste money and provide effort to reply. E-mail is used also to send message/s to multiple personalities. We can approach any kind of person using e-mail. For me, using e-mail is a great advantage. I feel more convenient and relaxed because I can review my previous message and change immediately without changing the whole letter. It allows me to provide information and to attach documents, pictures or presentations. Here in KAAUH, we are provided our own PNU account. This serves our personal account that can be access anytime. I see to it that using my email account I becoming responsible in reading my emails and to respond immediately with the messages I receive. When making or forwarding any message I make sure that the information is complete addressing to the right person. I’m using only my account in delivering messages regarding my work and should never have the intent to use for personal matters. Before sending any messages I’ll make sure that I will addressed it with the correct person, messages must be reviewed and make sure the grammar and spelling are correct. To make the message more formal I usually put subject to my messages. 2. Telephone Communication - Telephone is commonly used today as a form of communication. It is useful when are delivering our message that needs more explanation and convincing the other person. It is also effective and safe form of communication which provides more interactive way compared to sending emails. Telephone Communication is commonly used to healthcare institution that needs to provide an immediate and prompt attention. Most probably, it gives importance of having collaboration. Healthcare personnel could easily access other department or personnel easily in the hospital using telephone. When answering telephone we should be attentive to what the other person need to deliver or imply during the conversation. I must greet him and know who the person I’m talking too. I need to provide simple greetings showing genuineness and politeness to accept his message. During conversation, I need to utter simple words such as “yes or uhuhh” for him to know that I’m listening. I must be open to any suggestions, concerns and never argue. When he’s asking with something I need to answer him in a concise and clear way. To become more sensitive never let the person waits for you, if you’re busy you can tell to call after 5 minutes. If it is emergent, play a part of becoming responsible by giving your time. I should never distract myself to any interruptions or doing other task. During emergency calls or telephone orders, it is important to repeat back the order. And lastly, I need to hang up the phone carefully without banging and possibly to secure in closing the receiver because sometimes the phone is forgotten to put back in the receiver and the person can still hear the conversation on the line. Example on my ways when answering telephone calls: Me: “Yes, hello, goodmorning. This is Mizael Shareign Marcos, a staff nurse of medical ward. May I know who’s on the line please? How may I help you? Doctor: Hi. Goodmorning too. This is Doctor Omar Alotaibi. I’m calling from the Physician’s office. I’m about to follow-up with the condition of Mama X who has been experiencing shortness of breath and decrease saturation last night. How is she today? Me: Yes doctor. Thank you for the concern Doctor Omar. Mama X today is definitely fine. Vital signs is stable with occasional coughing, greenish secretions noted. Positioned is fowler’s position. Still receiving D5NSS 500 ml to run for 8 hours. Doctor: How about her x-ray and sputum collection? Me: The result has been forwarded in the system doctor. The x-ray reading is Pneumonia and the patient sputum culture results provided positive numerous staphylococcus bacteria. Doctor: If the patient has any allergies? Me: She’s an allergy to meropenem only doctor. Doctor: Please start to infuse Cefazolin 500 mg IV every 8 hours to be completed for 14 days. 8 Me: I just want to repeat your order doctor. To start Cefazolin 500 mg IV every 8 hours to be completed for 14 days. Doctor: Yes it is. I’ll be going to your unit to sign the physician form after 30 minutes. Me: Thank you so much doctor. Doctor: Welcome. 3. Written Formal Communication – A sample letter is provided and attached to the last page of this document. The letter of intent to renew my contract is addressed to Dr. Anne Blunden, the Executive Director of Nursing at King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz University Hospital in Riyadh.

04/30/2016 divya sharma
Lignin, a complex polyphenolic structure is covalently linked to cell wall polysaccharides as lignin-carbohydrate complexes. Xylanase helps in bleaching by hydrolyzing the xylan from lignin-xylan complex (Yin et al., 2011), thereby lowering the release of hazardous chemicals in the effluent and consequently decreasing the consumption of chlorine, hence creating an ecofriendly technology (Beg et al., 2001). Apart from xylanase, pectinase has also been used in pulp and paper industries. Pectin released from the fiber structure to aqueous phase during alkaline treatment step of pulping causes anionic trash, which interferes with the drainage. Pectinase helps to degrade the pectin released into the aqueous phase of pulp (Lund et al., 2004). Crude xylano-pectinolytic enzymes have been successfully used in biobleaching of plywood industrial waste soda anthraquinone pulp (Agrawal et al., 2016) and in biobleaching of mixed hardwood kraft pulp as reported earlier by us (Kaur et al., 2010). In this report, ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic enzymes have been applied in biobleaching of Soda anthraquinone (SAQ) pulp. The aim of this work is to compare and evaluate the bleaching potential of ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic enzymes with crude xylano-pectinolytic enzymes on plywood veneer SAQ pulp. This is the first report showing the use of ultrafiltered xylano-pectinolytic synergism in further reducing the amount of chemicals used for bleaching with significant improvement in various physical properties of pulp. The concurrent production of xylano-pectinolytic enzymes using agricultural wastes will make the bleaching process highly economical by reducing the enzymes production cost, bleaching chemicals cost and also the cost of waste water treatment .The use of ultrafiltration strategy will further reduce the use of toxic chemicals along with the production of superior quality paper. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1 Materials Xylan (birchwood) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and all other chemicals used were of high purity grade. Agro-residues such as wheat bran and citrus peel were purchased from local market. 2.2 Microbial Strain Bacillus pumilus AJK strain (MTCC Accession No.10414) was used for the simultaneous production of xylano-pectinolytic enzymes. 2.3 Enzyme Production & ultrafiltration The xylano-pectinolytic enzymes production was carried out in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml basal medium (g/l: peptone, 5.0 ; MgSO4.7H2O, 2.45 ; pH 7.0) supplemented with 2% wheat bran and 2% citrus peel under submerged fermentation. After autoclaving, inoculation was done with 2% inoculum of 21 h old and incubated at 37oC for 48h under continuous shaking conditions. Microfiltration was done by using 0.2 micron membrane cartridge in order to get the clear cell free extract. The clear supernatant was partially purified using 3kDa nominal molecular weight cut-off membrane to concentrate the extract ten fold and to remove low molecular weight impurities. While using 3 kDa membrane, discontinuous diafiltration was done three times by adding an equal volume of glycine-NaOH buffer (10 mM, pH 8.5) for maximum removal of impurities. 2.4 Detemination of enzyme activity Enzyme activity was determined by measuring the release of reducing sugars after enzymatic reaction using 3, 5-Dinitro-salicylic acid method (Miller, 1959). Assays were performed in the same way as described by Kaur et al., (2010). 2.5 Pulp sample The biobleaching ability of ultrafiltered enzymes was determined by incubating unbleached SAQ pulp sample consisting of 90% plywood industrial waste (veneer), 5% bamboo and 5% mixed hardwood with xylano-pectinolytic enzymes under optimized reaction conditions. Pulp consistency used for all the experiments was 10% and anthraquinone concentration was 0.08%. 2.6 Optimization of various reaction parameters using ultrafiltered enzymes Reaction parameters for enzymatic bleaching of SAQ pulp were optimized by using one variable at a time approach. Different reaction conditions such as temperature, pH, enzyme dose and retention time were optimized in order to obtain the best conditions. SAQ pulp was treated with xylano-pectinolytic enzymes under different pH values ranging from 7.5 to 9.5. Similarly, the pulp was treated with different enzyme dosages ranging between 2.0 to 7.0 IU of xylanase and 0.4 to 1.4 IU of pectinase per g of pulp at different retention time from 60 to 210 min and in variable temperature range from 45oC to 70oC. Control samples were also run under the same conditions using heat inactivated enzymes. After washing the pulp samples with distilled water, handsheets were made using standard TAPPI methods (Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry Test Methods, 1996). Kappa number was determined (TAPPI T236) to find the most effective bleaching condition. 2.7 Bleaching steps of plywood veneer pulp Bleaching of control and enzyme treated pulp samples (under optimum reaction conditions) was done by using steps CDEPD1D2 (CD-Chlorination; EP-Alkali extraction; D1-Chlorine dioxide treatment 1; D2; Chlorine dioxide treatment 2). To determine the amount of reduction in chlorine consumption by enzymatically treated pulp, chlorination was done using different percentage of chlorine from 100% to 70%. In second step, alkali extraction was done by treating the pulp samples with 2.5% NaOH and 0.8% H2O2 at 80 0C for 2 h. Alkali treated pulp was washed with distilled water to remove extra alkali present in the pulp and a known amount of pulp was used to make handsheets for measuring the brightness and the left over pulp was treated with chlorine dioxide, D1 and D2 (1.0% and 0.3% ClO2) stages to remove residual lignin at 70oC for 3h. Reduction in consumption of chlorine dioxide in D1 and D2 stages was also determined. After all bleaching steps, pulp filtrate was used to determine the BOD and COD values of pulp effluents. 2.8 Analysis of different physical properties of pulp According to standard TAPPI test methods, handsheets were prepared and analyzed for different physical properties viz., Pulp freeness (TAPPI Method 227), Brightness (TAPPI Method 452), Breaking length (TAPPI Method 404), Burst factor (TAPPI Method 403), Tear factor (TAPPI Method 496), Viscosity (TAPPI Method 230) and Kappa number (TAPPI Method 236). All experiments were performed in triplicates.

02/10/2016
As per Montreal protocol the CFC refrigerants have been phased out already, as a result of their high ODP values. The HCFC refrigerants are also going to be phased out in the near future due to successive international amendments. Therefore the HFC refrigerants are being used as alternatives to them. But they are also the substances that are to be controlled under Kyoto protocol as they have high GWP. Now the HC refrigerants are proposed to be the best substitutes for these refrigerants. Owing to their high flammability they cannot be retrofitted as substitutes for those refrigerants practically. Thus there is a need to find a permanent solution. This paper includes a computational analysis of the performance of the two refrigerant mixtures, [M1 HFO-1234yf/HFC-32 (80/20) and M2 HFO-1234ze/HFC32 (80/20)] as the alternatives of HCFC-22 using REFPROP. This paper also focuses on the safety issues and environmental impact of the refrigerant mixtures. Our mixtures are shown to be safer, economic and environmentally acceptable option to replace HCFC-22 in air conditioning systems.

12/07/2015 Talha
Are you a internet site owner like plagiarism-checker.me and trying to ensure publishing precise content material for your website? You need a very good plagiarism checker for this cause. This sort of device can check your content material for plagiarism before you post it. To check your content, click http://www.plagiarism-checker.me/

10/14/2015 azah
Preamble: With great technical development in today's world it is possible to achieve a comfortable interior conditions for a person using modern techniques and various mechanical means without taking into account any external climatic factors. Says a leading environmental architecture Arab Hassan Fathy in this area: "provided the architect of modern technology in this day and age all styles and innovations that spared the attention to what it is the external environment in which the natural building and living conditions." Architect also advises saying: "We should not deal with the environment as it deals with the paper that paint them as blank white, good construction requires that be in the process of its creation but newly added to the list of accepted environment. Obligatory respect and understanding and dealing with them and use them for the benefit of what you are doing "As Winston Churchill says:" We define our buildings patterns, but later are determined by the patterns of our lives. " Architecture was one of the most important means by which man he used to protect himself and his family from external factors (natural factors, animals and other threats to his life) has the climate was more influential on the life and style of human living these factors, so it has tried to cross the historic march to develop different types of shelters to protect them from the vagaries of climate and the factors that have varied these shelters and evolved with the development of human potential and abilities, Valmgaur and caves, and the houses of mud and modern houses, are only different forms of housing built by man to protect himself from the various factors and give itself the right place to live. Except that with the great development witnessed by the world in all scientific, technical and industrial fields, especially after the Industrial Revolution to the present day, and began the role of climatic factors falling a significant decline in the built environment design, and especially after he became a man able to give itself the best thermal conditions using modern techniques (hardware mechanical and electrical), all this to the great ignorance of what surrounds this built environment of the climatic conditions and the external environment, or

11/25/2014 Harla
A computer invasion is taking place in the field of education. As the world becomes increasingly reliant on computer technology, it is logical for individuals to consider entering the field of computer technology, which includes myself. It is apparent that technology has advanced to the point if there is a question concerning any subject matter, a clarification can immediately be found by using a computer. Technology has grown so much in the past few years that the world has shrunk and the people living in progressive nations have become dependent on the computer for business, pleasure, and education. Computers also make it possible for me to take this course online. There is a definite growth concerning the dependency on computers in the field of education, online classes are increasing rapidly and are providing opportunities to thousands of individuals who were previously denied the chance of receiving a higher education. “The most influential tool in the classrooms of today is the Internet, districts, schools, and teachers that are not dealing with this reality are truly doing a huge disservice to their students. As we progress in this technologically charged world, we face a very important question: what is to become the role of the teachers? Will they become obsolete” (Loyola)? There is no denying that the computer has invaded the classroom and it is here to stay, but students will continue to receive assignments, do research, write papers, and take tests. The teacher has to provide the assignments, give advice and guidance, plus evaluate the students’ progress and issue grades. “It appears that many strategies used by exemplary educators who teach face-to-face can be transposed to the online teaching environment with similar positive results. Specifically, there is a need for educators, whether classroom or online, to challenge and affirm the personal worth of learners” (Edwards). Online generated classes are becoming more popular. Both the teacher and the students are having to adapt to these changes. The student has to be more responsible and learn to work independently while concentrating on getting the assignment done on time. The teacher has become more innovative in the creation of assignments and make postings for the students. It is wrong to think that the computer could ever take the place of a teacher. Currently, there is a challenge issued to every school district in our nation for computers to be placed in every classroom and at the disposal for every student. Last year President Obama announced, “a federal effort to get a laptop, tablet, or smart phone into the hands of every student in every school in the United States and to pipe in enough bandwidth to get all 49.8 million American kids online simultaneously by 2017. Bulky textbooks will be replaced by flat screens. Worksheets will be stored in the cloud, not clunky Trapper Keepers. The Dewey decimal system will give way to Google” (Scherer). The expediency in which materials are published on the Internet is almost instant, whereas printed material published in books may be outdated. By placing computers in the classrooms, it becomes a useful tool for learning and challenges each student to become technically knowledgeable. On the other hand, students who graduate and were trained to use the computer, will bring a higher level of skill to any job they may attain. According to a report released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts, “an additional 785,700 job increase in the employment of computer technicians in the period between 2008 and 2018. This figure is faster than expected average for other occupations. Data from the Bureau of Labor show median annual wages of computer support specialists were $47,360 in May of 2009” (Lacey). Job opportunities in the computerized systems will be endless with all the businesses relying on computerization for efficient business transactions and record keeping. As time proceeds, there will be additional jobs created to take care of the changes made in computers as it progresses into the future. With the public being compelled to work with computers, the opinions of the users are both pro and con. As a pro illustration of public opinion of computers in classrooms, “research done in the area of computers in classrooms used students, teachers, and computers for performance and came to the conclusion that students and teachers alike embraced the technology and recognized that challenges and areas for improvement still exist. Unfortunately, the data showed a school-wide commitment to this initiative’s success and that this particular school’s general motto of preparing students for academic success was reflected in this effort” (Broussard). This study was completed in Houston, Texas among 9th thru 12th graders. There are many similar reports submitted by researchers throughout the United States who gather data by telephone, flyers, emails, etc. “From investigating instructor attitudes toward technology and the utilization of computers in schools, the researchers concluded that the use of technology for curricular purposes is almost exclusively a function of teachers’ access to that technology” (Norris, 2003). There is a trend among the reports; teachers, students, and parents all reported astonishment with the results, even though small, the results will continue to increase and advances will be made for the use of the computer in the classroom. As technology continues to advance, progress in the field of education, classrooms, as the way we know them today, may be extinct. Teachers will no longer be at the chalkboard with a piece of chalk in his hand. Students will not longer be at desks with pencil and paper taking notes. Students may become a part of the “home schooled” concept. Their assignments will be received and sent over the Internet. This could prove to be advantageous for many different reasons; it would take social pressures off the student, it would stop bullying. There would be no need to purchase uniforms or expensive clothing and shoes to be impressive. If online schooling does take place in the future, the students would have to find other ways to socialize. Living to relate and interact with others is an essential important part of life; this will be accomplished through the use of a computer in some form. To summarize, the computer is here to stay. Our way of life as we know it today will change as computer technology advances. Teachers and students alike will change to keep up with the world of computer technology. The computer offers immense information and students with computer skills will be better equipped for jobs which predicted for the future is outstanding. The dependency on computers is expanding rapidly. The classroom will no doubt change and teachers will also change teaching methods. Computer technology in schools creates a setting of eagerness to learn not only academics, but become skilled with the functions of the computers. Like it or not, computers have become an integral part of life.

10/06/2014 vinay
Pharmaceutical analysis having the necessary procedures to determine “identity, strength, quality and purity of the medicinal substances pharmaceutical drug products. The quality control division mainly managed by pharmaceutical analyst and place a major role. Mainly analytical chemistry involves separating identifying and determining the relative amounts of components in a drug substance. Modern pharmaceutical analysis must need the following requirements. 1. The analysis should take minimal time. 2. The accuracy of the analysis should meet the demands of the pharmacopoeia. 3. The analysis should perform with a minimal cost. 4. Selectivity and precision of the selected method should be good. 1.2 TYPICAL INSTRUMENTAL TECHNIQUES: The selected method for the estimation of the drugs are classified as physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological ones of the them, physical and physicochemical methods are mostly used physical method used for the studying of physical properties of substance. These physical properties are solubility, transparency degree of turbidity, colour density or specific gravity (for liquids), moisture content, melting, freezing and boiling points. Physicochemical methods. This physicochemical method are used for estimation of polarimetry, optical refractometry, emission and fluorescent methods of analysis, photometry including spectrophotometry, nephlometry, turbidometry and chromatography methods are preferable.

08/23/2014 Brittany


08/23/2014 Brittany
Arthur Miller’s article “Why I Wrote the Crucible” assisted me with the understanding of the play by supporting me with specific parallel draws between the play and the article. In Arthur Miller’s play, he chose to use the Salem witch trials to act in place of the McCarthy Era due to the fact that the American society was going through similar events that Salem went through. In the 1950s paranoia towards communism broke out, and many citizens were terrified. The H.U.A.C. (house un-American activities committee) led by Joseph McCarthy, was an organization that had the obligation to victimize any communists they were aware of. The organization also had the responsibility of searching for communists to take into questioning. In 1692 the Salem witch trials consisted of innocent people being accused of witch craft. While in trial, they were consistently asked (88) “Did you ever see anyone with the Devil?” being that they never actually practiced witch craft and had never seen the devil, they would automatically accuse other innocent people just to save their own selfish lives. Miller realized Salem imitated the McCarthy Era because the people only cared about protecting themselves from execution as did the people who were tangled with the H.U.A.C. They would accuse other innocent humans of being communists with no humanity; they had no care in the world. The only way out of being executed was to accuse others of the same “crime.” The people were threatened/pressured into naming other innocent people, for when they did not do so, it would lead to the death penalty. As said in the article by Arthur Miller (19) “By denying that there is any reason… for you to be accused…that mere chance picked you out…you would have to be a crypto-Luciferian to say that…not a good idea if you wanted to go back to your farm.” The court would automatically believe you were on the devils side if you denied to be guilty, and they would punish you. In the 1950s America was in the state of the civil rights movement. The people were fighting for equality because the African Americans were treated poorly and were the outvoted and were being persecuted by society. Miller characterized Tituba as a colored woman. She was Parris’s servant. She was one of the very first persons to be accused of witch craft. Due to the fact that she was a minority and a colored woman, it made it easier for the people to accuse her of witch craft. Although she was innocent she chose to plead guilty because that was the only way she could save her life. Arthur’s purpose in writing “The Crucible” was to show the society what they were too blind to see. He paralleled the events from the McCarthy Era to the Salem witch trials. Miller was able to create a great awareness for future purposes. He showed the society the unjust decisions the court forced onto the people. They were racist and unjust when people did not plea to be a communist or to have practiced witch craft, or when they denied having knowledge of any other sinner.

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